The Illinois team came up with the idea of implanting bits of algae DNA into the tobacco plant's cells to create a type of biological shortcut that would speed up photorespiration
Plants convert sunlight into energy through photosynthesis; however, most crops on the planet are plagued by a photosynthetic glitch, and to deal with it, evolved an energy-expensive process called photorespiration
that drastically suppresses their yield potential.
The issue was resolved by using methanol that can supply C[O.sub.2] into the leaf cells, therefore it can offset the loss of C[O.sub.2] in the process of photorespiration
Wendler, "Effect of glufosinate (phosphinothricin) on amino acid content, photorespiration
and photosynthesis," PesticideScience, vol.
Catalase is essential for the removal of [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] produced in the peroxisomes by photorespiration
(2005) described the synthesis of monoterpenes in a model including photosynthesis and photorespiration
, which also requires a high number of model parameters not known in the present study.
Under environmental C[O.sub.2] concentration, the increase in temperature modifies the kinetic constants of rubisco, and increases oxygenation rate preferably to carboxylation, consequently increases photorespiration
and decreases net photosynthesis.
Catalase is an enzyme related to the metabolization of [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] generated in the photorespiration
(Wang et al., 2009; Foyer & Shigeoka, 2011).
In some models, it is the indirect effect of temperature on stomatal conductance that causes the highest decline in photosynthesis (Doughty & Goulden, 2008; Lloyd & Farquhar, 2008), but others showed that direct effects on photorespiration
and photosynthetic machinery are more important (Galbraith et al., 2010; Doughty, 2011).
It has been estimated that under drought stress more than 70% of total [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] accumulation is due to photorespiration
In the present study, the mid-season decline in midday NEE we observed may be attributed to a decline in GEE (values closer to zero) associated with high midday temperatures and water limitation leading to stomatal closure and high rates of photorespiration
in this plant community dominated by the [C.sub.3] photosynthetic pathway (Sharkey, 1988).
Yet, dark respiration and photorespiration
also increase, decreasing net C[O.sub.2] uptake.