Restoration of the photoreceptor layer
and improvement of visual acuity in successfully treated optic disc pit maculopathy: a long follow-up study by optical coherence tomography.
Melatonin modulates the expression of retinal genes, that is, PER1, PER2, and BMAL1, responsible for controlling circadian rhythms in this tissue, as well as the genes regulating their expression: DBP, NAMPT, and c-FOS were rhythmically modulated in the mouse retina and in the photoreceptor layer
The RPE layer plays a central role in the health and function of the photoreceptor layer
A prospective observational study was carried out on 40 eyes of 40 patients (35 males and 5 females), age ranging from 26 to 51 years to evaluate the changes in macular photoreceptor layer
using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and correlate the loss of visual acuity.
The retina is 100 to 230 micrometers thick and has seven layers, including a light-sensing photoreceptor layer
, an intermediate cell layer, and a layer of nerve cells that attach directly to the brain.
By sectioning down through and microscopically examining each of the five layers of the retina, they knew when they had reached the photoreceptor layer
OCT examination revealed extrafoveal inferonasal choroidal excavation in the right eye (Figure 1b), while in the left eye subfoveal focal choroidal excavation was observed, as well as separation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) photoreceptor layer
and subretinal fluid in the same area (Figure 1c).
Within four to six weeks, the transplanted "red" cells had moved to the photoreceptor layer
of the retina and had begun to integrate and assemble into healthily looking retinal tissue.
Within 21 days, the new cells settled into the photoreceptor layer
and grew into rods and cones.
The photoreceptor layer
was divided into three regions: the outer segment region, which contained modified cilia with a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules and vacuoles; a pigment layer that was filled with pigment granules, tubular mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and microtubules; and the basal region, which housed the nucleus and extended branches into the neural layer (Fig.
To simulate the contour found in a normal retina, Springer constrained the nodes on the outer surface of the photoreceptor layer
in the X, but not the Y, plane.
In many patients, disruptions of the photoreceptor layer
detected by SD-OCT are correlated with visual acuity and disease progression.