Exposure to nonextreme solar UV daylight: Spectral characterization, effects on skin and photoprotection
. Int J Mol Sci 16, 68-90.
Functional roles of flavonoids in photoprotection
: new evidence, lessons from the past.
Regular sun exposure, use of photoprotection
, and vitamin D supplementation were reported by 144 (64.0%), 44 (19.6%), and five (2.2%) of the women evaluated, respectively (Table 1).
Thus, the photoprotection
from naturally occurring substances has gained considerable attention in recent years due to their wide range of biological activities.
by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E.
Regarding oral and topical photoprotection
, exogenous nutrients such as [alpha]-tocopherol, oral and topical retinoids such as vitamin A and [beta]-carotene (a precursor of vitamin A), lycopene, and lutein all contribute to the formation of a UV-radiation barrier and some of them act as antioxidants (47).
Furthermore, flavonoids can protect plants from solar UV radiation through distinct mechanisms of photoprotection
, including UV absorption, direct and indirect antioxidant properties, and modulation of several signaling pathways .
by melanin- a comparison of black and Caucasion skin.
The natural photoprotection
of the nail bed is limited by the absence of melanocytes, stratum granulosum, and sebaceous glands.
A decrease in F v /F m could be the result of photochemical damage in the PSII reaction center, but could also be the result of photoprotection
, which is the dissipation of non-photochemical energy (Demmig and Bjorkman, 1987).
Studies showed that the efficacy of--carotene in systemic photoprotection
depends on the duration of treatment and on the dose.
2005) as far as we know little information related to photoinhibition and photoprotection
of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) is available yet.