phosphorylation


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phosphorylation

 [fos″for-ĭ-la´shun]
the process of introducing a phosphate group into an organic molecule.
oxidative phosphorylation the final common pathway of aerobic energy metabolism in which high-energy phosphate bonds are formed by phosphorylation of ADP to ATP coupled with the transfer of electrons along a chain of carrier proteins with molecular oxygen as the final acceptor. It occurs in mitochondria.

phos·phor·y·la·tion

(fos'fōr-i-lā'shŭn),
Addition of phosphate to an organic compound, such as glucose to produce glucose monophosphate, through the action of a phosphotransferase (phosphorylase) or kinase.

phos·phor·y·la·tion

(fos'fŏr-i-lā'shŭn)
Addition of phosphate to an organic compound, such as glucose to produce glucose monophosphate, through the action of a phosphotransferase (phosphorylase) or kinase.

phosphorylation

The addition of a phosphate group to an organic molecule.

phosphorylation

the process in which one of more phosphate groups is added to a molecule. Such reactions occur regularly in biological systems. For example, in AEROBIC RESPIRATION glucose is phosphorylated in GLYCOLYSIS; ADP is phosphorylated to ATP at the substrate level and via the ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM; in plants ATP is produced by PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION.

phos·phor·y·la·tion

(fos'fŏr-i-lā'shŭn)
Addition of phosphate to an organic compound, such as glucose to produce glucose monophosphate, through the action of a phosphotransferase (phosphorylase) or kinase.
References in periodicals archive ?
When undifferentiated neural stem cells harvested and cultured from a fetal mouse brain were given fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), expression of Matrin-3 increased greatly and phosphorylation advanced.
According to recent medical research, there is a phenomenon in which proteins that have undergone reactions may phosphorylate other proteins in a chain reaction (chained information), and this may be the key to predicting new, unknown phosphorylation reactions related to that phenomenon.
In the presence of the T[beta]Rl/AlK5 inhibitor (SB-431542), the phosphorylation of the Smad2L had completely abolished.
The human Muller cell line, MIO-M1, indicated similar trends as observed in HREC where not all sites resulted in increased phosphorylation with high glucose exposure.
PDK1 and mTORC2 are grouped as a single enzyme catalyzing the phosphorylation (activation) of AKT.
Rectangular strips (~2 mm x 10 mm x 2 mm) of full thickness muscle were used for the protein expression and phosphorylation studies.
Additionally, our group has recently demonstrated that the treatment of genetically different GBM cell lines with PP242 but not with rapamycin induces a dramatic and permanent reduction of AKT phosphorylation on serine 473 that not only counteracts tumor growth and invasiveness but also prevents GSC proliferation.
As described in detail in Materials and Methods, PSD phosphorylation was quantified by phosphorimaging of the [sup.32]P incorporation following SDS-PAGE separation of the proteins (Figures 2(a) and 2(b)).
However, the activities of [I.sub.K] are dependent not only on expression levels of the potassium channel, but also on the phosphorylation status of the channels (25).
Phosphorylation of proteins was considered to be positive when over 10% of all cells were stained, in contrast to the isotype control.
[alpha]-Synuclein consists of 140 amino acid residues [24] organized in three structural regions: an amphipathic amino-terminal domain from 1 to 60 amino acid residues, responsible for the binding of [alpha]-synuclein to lipid vesicles [25, 26]; the NAC (non-amyloid-[beta] component) region from 61 to 95 amino acid residues, also found in amyloid plaques of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease [27] and responsible for [alpha]-synuclein aggregation and [beta] sheets arrangement [28]; and the carboxy-terminal domain from 96 to 140 amino acid residues, which is the main target for the protein phosphorylation [29, 30] (Figure 1(a)).
Here, we aimed to assess how incubation in 1% [O.sub.2] affects the phosphorylation of these signaling components.

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