suppress Lactobacillus casei cell-wall-induced NF-?
The nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitors
IBMX, theophylline, and papaverine induced significant levels of metamorphosis [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 2 OMITTED]; however, we observed no effect of the selective inhibitor RO-20-1724 [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 3 OMITTED].
Additionally, phosphodiesterase inhibitors
such as sildenafil (Viagra) are often used in more severe cases.
Key classes of mechanism of action include endothelin receptor antagonists, platelet aggregation inhibitors, phosphodiesterase inhibitors
, serotonin pathway antagonists, angiotensin receptor antagonists, P2Y 12 receptor inhibitors, PDE5 inhibitors, prostacyclin (PGI2) agonists, nitric oxide synthetase inhibitors.
Approval of sildenafil (Viagra) and other type-5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors
(vardenafil and tadalafil) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in men was followed by a series of studies to determine their efficacy in women.
Efficacy of type-5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors
in the drug treatment of premature ejaculation: a systematic review.
Augmentation of the vasodilatory effects of isosorbide dinitrate by phosphodiesterase inhibitors
Topics of these 19 papers include the physiology and pharmacology of ED and its epidemiology, the pharmacology of phosphodiesterase inhibitors
, a five-year review of sildenafil citrate, clinical trials of tadalafil and vardenafil, ED assessment and management in primary practice, special cases such as cardiac or diabetic patients and those with depression, therapies other than oral pharmacology, androgen deficiency, central activation of erection and clinical experience, vacuum devices and implants, prevention of ED, strategies in the management of rapid ejaculation, dysfunction after radical prostatectomy, and the possibilities of oral medications in treating female sexual dysfunction.
In a study presented at this year's American Urological Meeting in San Francisco, researchers at the University of Toronto found that several of the herbal sexual treatments contained manufactured phosphodiesterase inhibitors
at pharmacologic dosages.
6,403,597, entitled "Administration of Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
for the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation," and Patent No.
If evolving NVC changes (In high-risk serological subgroups) are shown to pre-date the emergence of overt organ-specific manifestations of SSc, then we might be provided with a window of opportunity for escalation of therapy with treatments targeting endothelial function (such as phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
and/or endothelin receptor antagonists) and/or possible immunomodulatory approaches.