The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-based biomarkers P-amyloid peptide (AP), phospho-tau
(p-Tau) and total tau can aid in the diagnosis of AD.
(Danvers, MA, USA), and those against BACE1, phospho-Tau
(Ser396), total Tau (A-10), and actin were obtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.
We evaluated the immunoreactivity of tau, phospho-tau
, Fas, Fas ligand, cleaved form of caspase-8, p38[alpha], cleaved form of caspase-3, and cytosolic cytochrome C by Western blot analysis.
Cerebrospinal fluid phospho-tau
, total tau and beta-amyloid(1-42) in the differentiation between Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.
Influence of delayed CSF storage on concentrations of phospho-tau
protein (181), total tau protein and beta-amyloid (1-42).
Tau hyperphosphorylation (phospho-Tau
) may be associated with apoptosis and contribute to the brain damage, which is due to an increase in GSK3[beta] activity in combination with an inactivation of Akt (Crespo-Biel et al., 2007; Duka et al., 2009; Wen et al., 2004; Yeung et al., 2010).
The amount of protein loaded was 10 [micro]g for the total tau analysis and 40 [micro]g for phospho-tau
(Ser356 and Thr231) analyses.
They also found that abnormalities associated with ApoE4 and AD, such as the creation of phospho-tau
and amyloid-beta, could be prevented by increasing SirT1, and have identified drug candidates that exert the same effect.
It has been shown in cell cultures and in a number of mice models to reduce and normalize the synthesis of amyloid-[sz] precursor protein (APP) and A[sz], tau and phospho-tau
as well as alpha-synuclein; proteins that are all elevated in the injured brain and that have all been shown to kill nerve cells.
The Buck group also found that the abnormalities associated with ApoE4 and AD, such as the creation of phospho-tau
and amyloid-beta, could be prevented by increasing SirT1.
(Concord MA), Poly-D-lysine (PDL) was from Sigma (St Louis, MO), recombinant IL-1[beta] was purchased from R&D Systems (Minneapolis, MN); and JNK inhibitor (SP600125) was purchased from Calbiochem, p-Thr231 phospho-tau
antibody was from AnaSpec Inc.
Biomarkers of neuronal degeneration or injury, evidenced by temporoparietal hypometabolism on fluorodeoxyglucose PET scan or temporoparietal hypoperfusion on single photon emission computed tomography, medial temporal atrophy on structural imaging, or increased CSF tau or phospho-tau