Note: DG, diacylglycerols; DMSO, dimethylsulfoxide; FA, fatty acids; LPA, lyso-PA; LPC, lyso-PC; LPG, lyso-PG; LPE, lyso-PE; MEHP, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; MG, monoacylglycerols; PA, phosphatidic acids
; PA-P, PA plasmalogens;PC, phosphatidylcholines; PC-P, PC plasmalogens; PE, phosphatidylethanolamines; PE-P, PE plasmalogens; PG, phosphatidylglycerols; PG-P, PG plasmalogens; PS, phosphatidylserines; PS-P, PS plasmalogens.
AGPAT: 1- acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase; DG: diacylglycerol; DGAT: diacylglycerol o-acyltransferases; G3P: glycerol-3-phosphate; GPAT: glycerol- 3phosphate acyltransferase; LPA: lysophosphatidic acid; PA: phosphatidic acid
; PPAR[gamma]: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; TG: triacylglycerol.
Ulbrich-Hofmann, "Spectrophotometric determination of phosphatidic acid
via iron(III) complexation for assaying phospholipase D activity," Analytical Biochemistry, vol.
Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is generated from PC by phospholipase A2 (Pla2), and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and phosphatidic acid
(PA) are generated by phospholipase D (Pld).
Taskin et al., "The fusogenic lipid phosphatidic acid
promotes the biogenesis of mitochondrial outer membrane protein Ugo1," The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.
(2016) The effects of phosphatidic acid
supplementation on strength, body composition, muscular endurance, power, agility, and vertical jump in resistance trained men.
(35) A possible mechanism may be that the diacyl glycerol (or phosphatidic acid
) part is exchanged with 1-alkyl-2-acyl or diacyl glycerol (or phosphatidic acid
) derived from a putative donor phospholipid.
The causal gene 'AG-PAT2' which is involved in the synthesis of phosphatidic acid
and triglycerides, was removed in the mice--resulting in rodents with generalised lipodystrophy.
The causal gene 'AGPAT2' which is involved in the synthesis of phosphatidic acid
and triglycerides, was removed in the mice-resulting in rodents with generalised lipodystrophy.
The causal gene, AGPAT2, which is involved in the synthesis of phosphatidic acid
and triglycerides, was removed in the mice, resulting in rodents with generalized lipodystrophy.
Lowering DAG, by microinjection of enzymes that either lower its precursor phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate ([PIP.sub.2]) or directly convert it to phosphatidic acid
, delays or inhibits the membrane fusion leading to formation of the nuclear envelope, and transforms the ER into extended sheet structures at the expense of the more highly curved tubules.
On the other hand, cyclic phosphatidic acid
(cPA), similar in structure to LPA, can be generated by phospholipase D2 (PLD2) and negatively regulate PPAR[gamma] functions (Figure 1).