Phoronida

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Phoronida

a very small phylum of wormlike coelomate marine animals which live in tubes and have planktonic larvae.
References in periodicals archive ?
These specimens are the second report of phoronids for Costa Rican waters after the finding of the adult Phoronopsis albomaculata Gilchrist, 1907 in Isla del Coco, Pacific of Costa Rica (Dean, Sibaja-Cordero, & Cortes, 2010).
For both phoronids and entoproct, the entire body tissue was used to make the transcriptomes.
The living phoronid worms are a phylum closely related to the brachiopods.
Among the most common are several species of bivalve molluscs, Nutricola (=Transennella) tantilla and Nutricola confusa, various crustaceans including grapsid crabs, Hemigrapsus oregonensis, the tanaid Leptochelia dubia, gammaridean amphipods, as well as numerous polychaete families and the phoronid, Phoronopsis viridis.
However, molecular phylogenetic and developmental analyses have shown that only Entoprocta nests within Spiralia, while ectoprocts often cluster with the phoronids, the brachiopods, or both, although a monophyletic Lo-phophorata is normally not recognized in recent molecular phylogenies (for discussion, see Halanych, 1996; Mackey et al, 1996; Giribet et al, 2000; Peterson and Eernisse, 2001; Passamaneck and Halanych, 2004, 2006; Philippe et al, 2005; Helmkampf et al, 2008).
The phoronids are habitants of the marine benthos, each individual produces a chitinous tube in which one moves freely, being able to retract.
Flow around phoronids: consequences of a neighbor to suspension feeders.
In modern oceans lophophorate worms are represented by non-biomineralizing phoronids which dwell in mucus tubes (Emig 1982).
The more divergent morphologies present within the Lophotrochozoa confound traditional evolutionary interpretations of many larval and adult characters, especially with regard to the "lophophorates." More recent studies on the development and larval anatomy of phoronids and brachiopods have expanded our understanding of their evolutionary affinities (Santagata and Zimmer, 2002; Santagata, 2004b; Cohen and Weydmann, 2005).
Cornulitids have been affiliated with annelids, tentaculitids, microconchids, cnidarians, molluscs, bryozoans, and phoronids (Fisher 1962; Boucek 1964; Blind 1972; Dzik 1991; Vinn & Mutvei 2005; Vinn 2005, 2006).
The best way to maximize the number of phoronids collected was to extract this portion of the shrimp's burrow by hand and sieve the sediment through a 1-mm screen.