Characterization and induction by phorbol
Inhibition of phorbol
ester-induced COX-2 expression by epigallocatechin gallate in mouse skin and cultured human mammary epithelial cells.
TRPV4 is gated by mechanical streteh, arachidonic acid metabolites, heat and the synthetic phorbol
12, 13-didecanoate (4[alpha]PDD).
Conjugated linoleic acid reduces phorbol
ester-induced prostaglandin F2alpha production by bovine endometrial cells.
upon stimulation with phorbol
12-myristate 13-acetate (Nakayama & Maruyama 1998, Arumugam et al.
2) The extracellular signal-regulated kinases are robustly activated by growth factors and phorbol
ester but are only weakly activated by cytokines and environmental stress.
ATRA, 9-cis-RA), phorbol
ester, vitamin D, and dimethylsulfoxide [As.
Characterization of metabolites of the chemopreventive agent curcumin in human and rat hepatocytes and in the rat in vivo, and evaluation of their ability to inhibit phorbol
ester-induced prostaglandin E2 production.
11] reported the in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of nobiletin on the phorbol
ester-induced skin inflammation model in mice.
THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line, and phorbol
12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which differentiates THP-1 cells into macrophages were used to measure expression of the inflammatory mediator interleukin-1[beta] in response to [[alpha].
For cytokine production, PBMCs were cultured with and without phorbol
myristate acetate/phytohemagglutinin (PMA/PHA) for 48 hours.
20) They demonstrated that treatment of purified monocytes with methotrexate leads to enhanced cellular fusion and formation of multiple nucleated giant cells by phorbol