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The parent alcohol of the cocarcinogens, which are 12,13(9,9a) diesters of phorbol found in croton oil; the hydrocarbon skeleton is a cyclopropabenzazulene; phorbol esters mimic 1,2-diacylglycerol as activators of protein kinase C.
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Abbreviations: FSW, filtered seawater; HA, hyaline amoebocytes; IL, interieukin; MLC, macrophage-like cells; PMM, phorbol 12-mono-myristate; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.
Cocoa polyphenols inhibit phorbol ester-induced superoxide anion formation in cultured HL-60 cells and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and activation of NF-kappaB and MAPKs in mouse skin in vivo.
This genus is rich in chemical constituents with biological activities, among them diterpenoids such as phorbol esters, clerodane, labdane, kaurane, grayanane, tigliane etc.
Phorbol ester (PMA, Sigma-Aldrich) was used as the activator of NF-[kappa]B pathway.
However, Jatropha curcas seeds were found to be toxic to animals, such as mice [4], rats [5], chickens, [6] and carps [7].The toxicity was ascribed to the presence of toxins or anti-nutritional factors including trypsin inhibitor, lectin (curcin), saponin, phytate, and phorbol esters.
Expression of tissue factor and tissue factor pathway inhibitor in monocytes in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and phorbol ester.
Cell culture tumor promotion experiments with saccharin, phorbol myristate acetate and several common food materials.
50ng/mL of Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and 1 [micro]g/mL of ionomycin (Io) (both from Sigma) were added for polyclonal stimuli.
Abbreviations: C, controls; Con A, concanavalin A; DMSO, dimethylsulfoxide; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; FACS, fluorescence activated cell scanner; IC50, halfmaximal inhibitory concentration; IL-2, interleukin-2; IKB, inhibitor of KB; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; NFKB, nuclear factor KB; OKT3, mouse anti-human CD3 antibody; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cell; PHA, phytonemagglutinin; PI, propidium iodide; PMA, phorbol myristate acetate.
pylori: Helicobacterpylori; I[C.sub.50]:the half maximal inhibitory concentration; IHNV: infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus; IL: interleukin; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; JNK: c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase; LDL: low-densitylipoprotein; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; NF-[kappa]B: nuclear factor kappa B; NO: nitric oxide; NOS: nitric oxide synthase; OHDA: hydroxydopamine; PARP: poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase; PD: Parkinson's disease; [PGE.sub.2]: prostaglandin [E.sub.2]; PI3K: Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases; PKB: protein kinase B; PKC: protein kinase C; PMA: phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SV40: Simian virus 40; TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substance; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; VHSV: viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus.
coli, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) in whole blood of healthy adults by the dihydrorhodamine flow cytometry assay.
[6] Nonstandard abbreviations: FasL, Fas ligand; MMLV, Moloney murine leukemia virus; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cell; Ct, threshold cycle; ACD, acid-citrate-dextrose; PMA, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; Cal, calcium ionophore; PHA, phytohemagglutinin-P; and IL-2, interleukin-2.