phorbol


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phor·bol

(fōr'bol),
The parent alcohol of the cocarcinogens, which are 12,13(9,9a) diesters of phorbol found in croton oil; the hydrocarbon skeleton is a cyclopropabenzazulene; phorbol esters mimic 1,2-diacylglycerol as activators of protein kinase C.

phorbol

/phor·bol/ (for´bol) a polycyclic alcohol occurring in croton oil; it is the parent compound of the phorbol esters.
phorbol ester  any of several esters of phorbol that are potent cocarcinogens, activating a cellular protein kinase; used in research to enhance the induction of mutagenesis or tumors by carcinogens.
References in periodicals archive ?
Inhibition of phorbol ester-induced COX-2 expression by epigallocatechin gallate in mouse skin and cultured human mammary epithelial cells.
TRPV4 is gated by mechanical streteh, arachidonic acid metabolites, heat and the synthetic phorbol ester, 4a-phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate (4[alpha]PDD).
Conjugated linoleic acid reduces phorbol ester-induced prostaglandin F2alpha production by bovine endometrial cells.
upon stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (Nakayama & Maruyama 1998, Arumugam et al.
2) The extracellular signal-regulated kinases are robustly activated by growth factors and phorbol ester but are only weakly activated by cytokines and environmental stress.
Characterization of metabolites of the chemopreventive agent curcumin in human and rat hepatocytes and in the rat in vivo, and evaluation of their ability to inhibit phorbol ester-induced prostaglandin E2 production.
11] reported the in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of nobiletin on the phorbol ester-induced skin inflammation model in mice.
THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which differentiates THP-1 cells into macrophages were used to measure expression of the inflammatory mediator interleukin-1[beta] in response to [[alpha].
For cytokine production, PBMCs were cultured with and without phorbol myristate acetate/phytohemagglutinin (PMA/PHA) for 48 hours.
20) They demonstrated that treatment of purified monocytes with methotrexate leads to enhanced cellular fusion and formation of multiple nucleated giant cells by phorbol ester.