The surgery treatment segment is further divided into structural implants, tracheotomy, bulk injection (phonosurgery
), and vocal cord repositioning.
Sataloff, "Laryngopharyngeal Reflux and Gluten Sensitivity," presented at The Voice Foundation's 44th Annual Symposium on Care of the Professional Voice & International Association of Phonosurgery
(Philadelphia, PA, May 31, 2015).
Correlation between the Voice Handicap Index and voice laboratory measurements after phonosurgery
. Ear Nose Throat J 2010; 89:183-8
A longitudinal study of voice before and after phonosurgery
for removal of a polyp.
for pitch alteration: feminization and masculinization of the voice.
Treatments for female-to-male/gender identity disorder (FTM/GID) include hormone therapy, plastic surgery, sex reassignment surgery, voice therapy, and phonosurgery
. In most cases, hormone therapy results in the voice of patients with FTM/GID becoming low-pitched.
Manhaim, Germany (2006), Fifth European Course on Laryngology and Phonosurgery
Complications of phonosurgery
: Results of a national survey.
We found an improvement of symptoms in 80% of the cases with a combination of speech therapy, conservative management, and phonosurgery
. Acute laryngitis, chronic laryngitis, contact pachydermia, habitual dysphonia, tubercular laryngitis, and vocal cord palsy showed improvement in more than 80% cases with conservative management.
. Assessment and surgical management of voice disorders.
In 23 chapters, laryngologists and head and neck surgeons mainly from the US outline aspects of clinical laryngology, including the anatomy and physiology of the larynx; evaluation and management of dysphonia and dysphagia; conditions like inflammation, laryngopharyngeal reflux, benign lesions of the vocal folds, benign tumors of the larynx, vocal fold immobility, laryngeal stenosis, neurologic and neuromuscular diseases, systemic and endocrine disorders, trauma, malignancies, and chronic aspiration; care of the professional voice; principles of phonosurgery
; voice therapy; swallowing rehabilitation; tracheotomy; pediatric aspects; cough and the unified airway; and office-based surgery.