Roach (2000) indicated that phoneticians
must have an accurate system of vowels classification.
Golestani and colleagues investigated brain structure in expert phoneticians
- individuals who are specialised in the study of phonetics and need to able to distinguish accurately between very similar speech sounds and subtle regional accents.
Sixty-two leading clinical linguists and phoneticians
from around the world contribute 38 chapters covering the main areas of research in the application of linguistic science to the study of communication disability in the clinical setting.
There are several ways in which phoneticians
have tried to measure the distance between two linguistic entities, most of which are based on the description of sounds via various representations.
During our first experiments in statistical modelling we invited Estonian phoneticians
and speech technologists to evaluate our first vector of argument features.
The cardinal vowels allow for a description of sounds in reference to specific points within the range of possibilities, allowing phoneticians
to describe the sounds as higher or lower than a specific point of reference, forward or backward of a fixed point, or in the middle of the space between front and back or high and low vowels.
The invention of spectrographic analysis in the 1940's, however, and early attempts to synthesize speech by concatenating invariant segments, brought home to phoneticians
in a particularly dramatic way the lack of acoustic invariance associated with the units that we hear in the speech signal (Potter et al., 1947).
and engineers spoke up against using voiceprints in court.
In fact, a high-quality spectrogram displaying information only below 4,000 Hz would give trained phoneticians
plenty to work with, assuming they wanted to do fairly standard phonetics.
who wish to learn more about a variety of phonological
But the careful distinction of phonetic and phonemic qualities was essential for maintaining the correct recital of Vedic mantras, and the brahmin phoneticians
and grammarians studied the distinctions with great care.
The results of the experiments showed quite clearly that even trained phoneticians
found the task of identifying single tonics in actual utterances very difficult and there was marked disagreement among the decisions of the judges.