Areas of the tissues were obtained as follows: the adaxial surface of the epidermis, the abaxial surface of the epidermis, the chlorophyll parenchyma, the sum of the phloem
areas, the average phloem
area in one vascular bundle, the sum of the areas of the vascular bundle sheaths, the sum of the areas of the vascular bundles, the sum of the areas of the xylem, the average xylem area in one vascular bundle, the sum of the area of fibers, the average fiber area in one vascular bundle, and the whole leaf area captured in the image using square micrometers as the measurement unit.
The sucrose available for exporting from mesophyll cells is transported through the phloem
to the sink organs, where it can be stored as starch in amyloplasts or converted to hexoses (LEMOINE et al., 2013) by invertase (acidic and neutral isoforms) and sucrose synthase (susy) enzymes (STURM; TANG, 1999; WINTER; HUBER, 2000; WELHAM et al., 2009).
Phloem-sucking insects, with long stylets, induce phloem
Branch girdling blocks the phloem
flow, making it more nutritive for offspring and future colonizers.
Collection of pure phloem
sap from wheat and its chemical composition.
They showed that in contrast to the late stage, during this early stage young phloem
cells (protophloem) are initiating and organising the primary (procambial) stage of radial growth.
There were large, small, and discontinuous sclerenchyma bunches, 3 or 6 rows in secondary phloem
Furthermore, in the cultivar Revolucion, Finetti Sialer (1990) observed that during the expansion of the feeding site, adjacent phloem
cells were displaced or incorporated into the syncytium.
(2016) found AM-fungi did not reduce density of a phloem
Infection by GLRaVs is limited to the phloem
, (11) and results in the degeneration of primary phloem
tissues in shoots, leaves, and clusters.
Veins are collateral, with the xylem located upper side and phloem
located lower side.
In mature sugarcane stems, sucrose transport follows a predominantly symplastic movement when moving from the phloem
into the storage parenchyma cells (Lingle, 1989; Rae et al., 2005; Patrick et al., 2013).