phlebitis


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phlebitis

 [flĕ-bi´tis]
inflammation of a vein, especially one in a lower limb. It is usually not serious in a superficial vein, since these veins are numerous enough to permit blood flow to be rechanneled so that it bypasses the inflamed vein. When a deep vein is involved, however, it may be more dangerous. It can also have serious consequences in certain areas such as the veins of the cranium, where it may lead to cerebral abscess. adj., adj phlebit´ic.

The causes of phlebitis are uncertain; it often occurs for no apparent reason. At other times, it seems to follow some other disorder, such as a circulatory difficulties like venous stasis, a blood disorder such as a myeloproliferative disorder, or obesity with concomitant lack of activity and venous stasis. It may also be a result of injury to a vein, either after an accident or occasionally as an aftermath of surgery.

Once in about a hundred births phlebitis develops in a newly delivered mother; in such cases it usually appears about 10 days after delivery. This form of phlebitis is commonly called “milk leg,” because it is associated with the onset of milk production by the mother. It may also develop when circulation is sluggish after long periods of staying in bed without proper exercising of the limbs and frequent changing of position.
Symptoms and Treatment. When phlebitis occurs in a superficial vein, there is usually pain and tenderness. This may be so slight at first that it is felt only when pressure is applied. As the inflammation increases, the pain becomes more acute, especially during walking or other exercise. The inflamed area swells and becomes red and warm. A tender cordlike mass may form under the skin; it may grow smaller as the condition subsides, but occasionally lasts for some time. When the inflammation occurs in a deep vein and affects the tunica intima, there may be formation of a thrombus on the vein wall, a condition known as thrombophlebitis. When clots in the veins interfere with the normal flow of blood, fluid accumulates and causes edema.

If phlebitis is superficial, the patient usually does not have to be confined to bed. When deeper veins are affected, however, or if the inflammation is severe, bed rest may be required. Antibiotics are sometimes prescribed to combat infection. In some extreme cases, or when an embolism is likely to occur, surgery with removal of the clot may be necessary as a preventive measure. In persons prone to thrombophlebitis, anticoagulants are used as a preventive measure along with graduated elastic stockings, particularly when long periods of bed rest are required.

phle·bi·tis

(fle-bī'tis),
Inflammation of a vein.
[phlebo- + G. -itis, inflammation]

phlebitis

(flĭ-bī′tĭs)
n.
Inflammation of a vein.

phle·bit′ic (-bĭt′ĭk) adj.

phlebitis

Venous thrombosis, thrombophlebitis Surgery Venous inflammation. See Thrombophlebitis.

phle·bi·tis

(flĕ-bī'tis)
Inflammation of a vein.
[G. phlebo, vein + G. -itis, inflammation]

phlebitis

Inflammation of a vein. This is usually associated with clot formation so the condition is often described as THROMBOPHLEBITIS.

Phlebitis

Inflammation of a vein.

phle·bi·tis

(flĕ-bī'tis)
Inflammation of a vein.
[G. phlebo, vein + G. -itis, inflammation]
References in periodicals archive ?
Intravenous phenytoin sodium produced moderate pain and burning at the infusion site, and phlebitis was still present in 7 of the 12 volunteers 5 days after the infusion.
Catheter stabilization is recognized increasingly as an important intervention in reducing complications of phlebitis, infection, catheter migration, and catheter dislodgment (Gorski, 2007).
There were four reasons for removal that were categorized as uncensored (i.e., clotted, leaked, phlebitis, or infiltration).
KEY WORDS: Peripheral venous catheter Catheter indwell time Phlebitis Thrombophlebitis.
As per the most recent consensus, 3 major histopathologic features of IgG4-related disease are dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, fibrosis that is at least focally storiform, and obliterative phlebitis (Table 3).
Researchers observed elevated risk during the one-to-five-year time period for peripheral and vascular atherosclerosis, hypotension, phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, thromboembolism, other circulatory diseases, and other diseases of the veins and lymphatics.
The researchers found that there were increased cardiovascular risks among endometrial cancer survivors for phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, and thromboembolism (hazard ratio, 2.07); pulmonary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.74); and atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio, 1.5) between one and five years after diagnosis.
In more severe cases, varicose veins can result in dermatitis, an itchy rash that can cause ulcers and bleeding if the skin is scratched; in some instances, phlebitis, a blood clot in the superficial veins near the skin's surface, can occur.
Foremost among them are the fibroinflammatory nature of the infiltrate, the presence of obliterative phlebitis, and its association with other forms of fibrosclerosis including sclerosing cholangitis, as well as retroperitoneal fibrosis, among others.
Due to presence of sclerosing fibrosis (Figure 2(a)) and obliterative phlebitis (Figure 2(b)), IgG4 immunostaining was performed, and it showed moderate numbers of IgG4 plasma cells with a IgG4/IgG plasma cell ratio of >40.
Histologically, lesions in IgG4-RD are characterized by a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. If several of these features are present and changes inconsistent with IgG4-RD are lacking, the diagnosis is further supported by documentation of increased numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells as well as a ratio of IgG4- over IgG-positive cells above 40 % [1].
The AE most notified was 'catheter broke in vein and moved to other part of body' (29%) followed by 'phlebitis' (26%) and 'vein break causing bruise' (15%).