Baranchuk, "Brugada phenocopy
: morphological classification and importance of provocative testing," Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology, vol.
To identify control reagents we tested the known proteasome inhibitors epoxomicin, clasto-lactacystin [beta]-lactone, lactacystin, MG115, and MG132 for the ability of phenocopy
RNAi reductionof-function in proteasome subunits in a C.
Cognitive loss in zinc transporter-3 knock-out mice: a phenocopy
for the synaptic and memory deficits of Alzheimer's disease?
The two studies' methodological differences notwithstanding, we believe an apt framework for explaining this lies in the hypotheses of Tannock and Brown (2000): (a) the phenocopy
hypothesis, which posits that ADHD as a disorder is secondary to reading disability or another primary disorder, and that only secondary symptoms are present, none with profound characteristics such as, for example, cognitive or cerebral deficit and (b) the etiologic hypothesis, according to which the comorbid subgroup of ADHD + RD has a different etiology than the disorders as they occur independently of one another.
Exposing normal (wild-type) flies to an unnaturally high temperature for a few hours during their pupa stage caused ~40% of them to develop a crossveinless phenocopy
. If only heat-shocked crossveinless flies were allowed to breed, the frequency of the crossveinless trait was shown to increase to over 90% in fewer than 20 generations.
As such, we administered azothioprine systemically to wild-type and ITPase heterozygous mutant adult flies to determine if we could phenocopy
the toxicity observed in human patients.
Mendelian randomization is therefore a means to address the phenocopy
(a phenotype similar to a genetic syndrome but due to an environmental exposure) and the genocopy (a genetic effect that could as readily be caused by an environmental exposure) in investigating an observed association.
of CAII deficiency: a novel genetic explanation for inherited infantile osteopetrosis with distal renal tubular acidosis.
Piaget, Jean, Adaptation and Intelligence: Organic Selection and Phenocopy
This method has excellent power for detecting epistasis in studies of nuclear families with low phenocopy
errors (8) (Martin et al.
Potentially, however, our reported link between reading problems and certain inhibition tasks might provide one specific cognitive mechanism underpinning the 'phenocopy
hypothesis' advanced by Pennington et al.
From 5 to 25% of these lines with very low phytic acid were characterized by an impaired or arrested embryo development, representing a phenocopy
of an embryo-specific mutant (Fig.