phenocopy


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Related to phenocopy: genocopy, Genetic heterogeneity

phenocopy

 [fe´no-kop″e]
1. an environmentally induced phenotype mimicking one usually produced by a specific genotype.
2. an individual exhibiting such a phenotype; the simulated trait in a phenocopy.

phe·no·cop·y

(fē'nō-kop'ē),
An environmentally induced mimic of a disease that is characteristically produced by a specific gene.
[G. phainō, to display, + copy]

phenocopy

(fē′nə-kŏp′ē)
n. pl. phenocop·ies
1. An environmentally induced, nonhereditary trait in an organism that closely resembles a genetically determined trait, especially a mutation.
2. An individual exhibiting such a trait.

phe·no·cop·y

(fē'nō-kop-ē)
1. A set of clinical and laboratory characteristics that would ordinarily warrant the diagnosis of a specific genetic abnormality, but are of environmental rather than genetic etiology.
2. A condition of environmental etiology that mimics one usually of genetic etiology.
[G. phainō, to display, + copy]

phenocopy

A PHENOTYPE or disorder caused by non-genetic factors that mimics, and may be mistaken for, a genetic disorder.

phenocopy

a disorder or change that appears to be genetic in origin but actually is produced by environmental effects. An example is deafness in an infant that is caused by the GERMAN MEASLES virus rather than by an inherited condition. The distinction can be important in relation to the chances of an affected individual transmitting the condition to the next generation.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Baranchuk, "Brugada phenocopy: morphological classification and importance of provocative testing," Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology, vol.
To identify control reagents we tested the known proteasome inhibitors epoxomicin, clasto-lactacystin [beta]-lactone, lactacystin, MG115, and MG132 for the ability of phenocopy RNAi reductionof-function in proteasome subunits in a C.
Cognitive loss in zinc transporter-3 knock-out mice: a phenocopy for the synaptic and memory deficits of Alzheimer's disease?
The two studies' methodological differences notwithstanding, we believe an apt framework for explaining this lies in the hypotheses of Tannock and Brown (2000): (a) the phenocopy hypothesis, which posits that ADHD as a disorder is secondary to reading disability or another primary disorder, and that only secondary symptoms are present, none with profound characteristics such as, for example, cognitive or cerebral deficit and (b) the etiologic hypothesis, according to which the comorbid subgroup of ADHD + RD has a different etiology than the disorders as they occur independently of one another.
Exposing normal (wild-type) flies to an unnaturally high temperature for a few hours during their pupa stage caused ~40% of them to develop a crossveinless phenocopy. If only heat-shocked crossveinless flies were allowed to breed, the frequency of the crossveinless trait was shown to increase to over 90% in fewer than 20 generations.
As such, we administered azothioprine systemically to wild-type and ITPase heterozygous mutant adult flies to determine if we could phenocopy the toxicity observed in human patients.
Mendelian randomization is therefore a means to address the phenocopy (a phenotype similar to a genetic syndrome but due to an environmental exposure) and the genocopy (a genetic effect that could as readily be caused by an environmental exposure) in investigating an observed association.
A phenocopy of CAII deficiency: a novel genetic explanation for inherited infantile osteopetrosis with distal renal tubular acidosis.
Piaget, Jean, Adaptation and Intelligence: Organic Selection and Phenocopy, trans.
This method has excellent power for detecting epistasis in studies of nuclear families with low phenocopy errors (8) (Martin et al.
Potentially, however, our reported link between reading problems and certain inhibition tasks might provide one specific cognitive mechanism underpinning the 'phenocopy hypothesis' advanced by Pennington et al.
From 5 to 25% of these lines with very low phytic acid were characterized by an impaired or arrested embryo development, representing a phenocopy of an embryo-specific mutant (Fig.