phenocopy

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Related to phenocopies: pleiotropy, genocopy

phenocopy

 [fe´no-kop″e]
1. an environmentally induced phenotype mimicking one usually produced by a specific genotype.
2. an individual exhibiting such a phenotype; the simulated trait in a phenocopy.

phe·no·cop·y

(fē'nō-kop'ē),
An environmentally induced mimic of a disease that is characteristically produced by a specific gene.
[G. phainō, to display, + copy]

phenocopy

/phe·no·copy/ (fe´no-kop″e) an environmentally induced phenotype mimicking one usually produced by a specific genotype.

phenocopy

(fē′nə-kŏp′ē)
n. pl. phenocop·ies
1. An environmentally induced, nonhereditary trait in an organism that closely resembles a genetically determined trait, especially a mutation.
2. An individual exhibiting such a trait.

phenocopy

[fē′nōkop′ē]
Etymology: Gk, phainein, to appear; L, copia, plenty
a phenotypic trait or condition that is induced by environmental factors but closely resembles a phenotype usually produced by a specific genotype. The trait is neither inherited nor transmitted to offspring. Such conditions as deafness, cretinism, mental retardation, and congenital cataracts are caused by mutant genes but can also result from a number of different agents, such as the rubella virus in the case of congenital cataracts. Because phenocopies may present problems in genetic screening and genetic counseling, all exogenous factors must be ruled out before any congenital trait or defect is labeled hereditary.

phe·no·cop·y

(fē'nō-kop-ē)
1. A set of clinical and laboratory characteristics that would ordinarily warrant the diagnosis of a specific genetic abnormality, but are of environmental rather than genetic etiology.
2. A condition of environmental etiology that mimics one usually of genetic etiology.
[G. phainō, to display, + copy]

phenocopy

A PHENOTYPE or disorder caused by non-genetic factors that mimics, and may be mistaken for, a genetic disorder.

phenocopy

a disorder or change that appears to be genetic in origin but actually is produced by environmental effects. An example is deafness in an infant that is caused by the GERMAN MEASLES virus rather than by an inherited condition. The distinction can be important in relation to the chances of an affected individual transmitting the condition to the next generation.

phenocopy

1. an environmentally induced phenotype mimicking one usually produced by a specific genotype.
2. an individual exhibiting such a phenotype; the simulated trait in a phenocopy.
3. experimentally produced phenocopies have been created in unfertilized rabbit eggs by the microinjection of the nuclei of embryonic rabbit cells.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Here, we extend these observadons to show that a) developmental exposure to the NDL PCB-95 in the maternal diet phenocopies the effect of developmental Al254 exposure on dendritic arborization in the developing hippocampus, b) PCB-95 promotes dendritic growth in cultured hippocampal neurons at picomolar to nanomolar concentrations, and c) the dendrite-promoting activity of PCB-95 requires RyR activity.
Early death of parents, the varying ages at onset and phenocopies may partly account for this.
To exclude these phenocopies (stroke attributable to other etiologies), the authors were able to exclude stroke patients with other etiologies, leaving 1399 patients (of 3516 original stroke patients).
The lack of a statistical linkage of the phenotypes with any marker, contrary to the expectations after the simulations (see above), can be due to an insufficient number of affected individuals in the family and the fact that the eight living persons suffering glaucoma are in two generations, or even a polygenic inheritance with phenocopies.
Ectopic expression of Hoxa-1 in the zebrafish alters the fate of the mandibular arch neural crest and phenocopies a retinoic acid-induced phenotype.
By various means, especially light, phenocopies can be produced (Butterfass, 1979).
In addition, our ALN-PCS program represents an opportunity in severe hypercholesterolemia for a novel therapeutic strategy that phenocopies human genetics, and our new program targeting hepcidin creates an opportunity for RNAi therapeutics in the treatment of refractory anemias.