phenocopy

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Related to phenocopies: pleiotropy, genocopy

phenocopy

 [fe´no-kop″e]
1. an environmentally induced phenotype mimicking one usually produced by a specific genotype.
2. an individual exhibiting such a phenotype; the simulated trait in a phenocopy.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

phe·no·cop·y

(fē'nō-kop'ē),
An environmentally induced mimic of a disease that is characteristically produced by a specific gene.
[G. phainō, to display, + copy]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

phenocopy

(fē′nə-kŏp′ē)
n. pl. phenocop·ies
1. An environmentally induced, nonhereditary trait in an organism that closely resembles a genetically determined trait, especially a mutation.
2. An individual exhibiting such a trait.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

phe·no·cop·y

(fē'nō-kop-ē)
1. A set of clinical and laboratory characteristics that would ordinarily warrant the diagnosis of a specific genetic abnormality, but are of environmental rather than genetic etiology.
2. A condition of environmental etiology that mimics one usually of genetic etiology.
[G. phainō, to display, + copy]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

phenocopy

A PHENOTYPE or disorder caused by non-genetic factors that mimics, and may be mistaken for, a genetic disorder.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

phenocopy

a disorder or change that appears to be genetic in origin but actually is produced by environmental effects. An example is deafness in an infant that is caused by the GERMAN MEASLES virus rather than by an inherited condition. The distinction can be important in relation to the chances of an affected individual transmitting the condition to the next generation.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005
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References in periodicals archive ?
Ari and Ekici for using the term Brugada phenocopies in their literature; however, we would like to emphasise that Brugada electrocardiogram patterns induced by sodium channel blockers should not be classified as Brugada phenocopies.
Here, we extend these observadons to show that a) developmental exposure to the NDL PCB-95 in the maternal diet phenocopies the effect of developmental Al254 exposure on dendritic arborization in the developing hippocampus, b) PCB-95 promotes dendritic growth in cultured hippocampal neurons at picomolar to nanomolar concentrations, and c) the dendrite-promoting activity of PCB-95 requires RyR activity.
To exclude these phenocopies (stroke attributable to other etiologies), the authors were able to exclude stroke patients with other etiologies, leaving 1399 patients (of 3516 original stroke patients).
The lack of a statistical linkage of the phenotypes with any marker, contrary to the expectations after the simulations (see above), can be due to an insufficient number of affected individuals in the family and the fact that the eight living persons suffering glaucoma are in two generations, or even a polygenic inheritance with phenocopies.
Ectopic expression of Hoxa-1 in the zebrafish alters the fate of the mandibular arch neural crest and phenocopies a retinoic acid-induced phenotype.
By various means, especially light, phenocopies can be produced (Butterfass, 1979).
In addition, deletion of MYD88 phenocopies IRAK4 deletion since both interrupt a pathway critical for pathogen sensing (TLR) and inflammation (IL-1R); patient's lymphocytes failed to mount immune responses in vitro to TIR agonists [11], recapitulating the disease phenotype and arguing for the central role of MYD88 in the immune response.
Mutation of a vital component of the HIW E3 ligase complex (DFsn) results in elevated levels of Wallenda and phenocopies the hiw mutant, suggesting that ubiquitination of Wallenda by Highwire may control elements of axon morphogenesis [56].
The central motivation for these latter studies is articulated by Stebbins and Basile (1986) in their definition of phyletic phenocopies: "We propose this term for changes in form or physiological response that mimic the normal form or reaction of a related phenotype, particularly one belonging to a different taxon.
Manji, "B-catenin overexpression in the mouse brain phenocopies lithium-sensitive behaviors," Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.