(2010) used phenetic
analysis of morphological data from an experimental field in the Saint Petersburg Region of Russia and 19 nuclear microsatellites, to study 238 landraces of all cultivated species from the VIR germplasm collection.
These techniques survey a large number of characters that have the potential to offer useful patterns and come loosely under the heading of 'phenetics'.
In general, studies analysing taxa at or below the species level use phenetic tools, while above this level cladistic analysis gives useful information.
I will subject this material and field-collected specimens to both a phenetic and cladistic analysis in order to address the species level questions and also produce a phylogeny of the genus.
numerical phylogenetics (phenetics), the latter resurrected and given
Homology and homologues, cladistics and phenetics: 150
"phenetic" phase (Sokal & Sheath, 1963; Sneath &
variation and habitat differences in Gasterosteus populations of the Queen Charlotte Islands.
monitoring of populations of the northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilus Pall.) in the zone of the eastern Ural radioactive trace.
* Phenetics--a method of classification by which similarity is determined by considering phenetic characters (characters responsible for an entity's appearance).
Phenetic characters comprise those responsible for appearance and are selected without regard to evolutionary history.
Take this moment to further discuss phenotypic plasticity and the notion that quality characters are reliable in their nature and usually not phenetic. You could suggest that colors may be uninformative by using the example that yellow and orange M & M'S[R] Peanut Butter look similar to REESE'S PIECES in valid characters (candy coating, peanut butter), but only the M & M'S[R] retain chocolate.