If patterns of phenetic relationships reflect geographic regions, then sites in each of the three geographic regions should be distant phenetically from samples located in other regions.
The samples from Tlatelolco and El Zapotal are phenetically separate from the rest of the samples.
To analyze the RAPD data phenetically
, we used POPGENE to compute genetic diversity statistics and perform UPGMA to assess the similarity of the populations, (Yeh and Boyle, 1997).
Data were compiled for each replicate experiment and analyzed phenetically
by the NTSYS version 2.0 program (Exeter Software, New York, NY).
The nearest sexual lineage is the one that is both cladistically most closely related by maternal lineage and phenetically
most similar in mtDNA sequence.
In the accounts below, I will use "cluster " to refer to the phenetically
similar species as grouped by earlier workers on the Mexican herpetofauna.
Communal nesting appears to be a stable form of social behavior that is phenetically
but not evolutionarily intermediate between solitary and eusocial behavior (Kukuk and Eickwort 1987).
Moreover, the only plant on which all traits (perhaps including oviposition) were genetically variable was Ambrosia, which is most closely related and phenetically
similar to the natural host, and is probably the plant from which this insect's present association with Iva was derived.
Relationships among the haplotypes were described phenetically
using the UPGMA and Neighbor-joining programs in NTSYS (versions 1.5-1.7, Rohlf 1990), and cladistically using PAUP (version 3.0s, Swofford 1990) and MacClade (versions 2.1-3.0, Maddison and Maddison 1987, 1990).
zelicaon (Z lineage) also formed phenetically
discrete clusters, whereas the mtDNA of P.
frutescens is phenetically most similar to Ambrosia in secondary chemistry (Futuyma and McCafferty 1990, fig.
A genetic capacity to respond to a plant may be lost or at least greatly reduced in time, at least in a lineage that has long since shifted to a phenetically very different plant.