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A salt or ester of phenol (carbolic acid).
Synonym(s): carbolate (1)
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Fortnightly, water samples were taken from the experimental tanks to determine concentrations of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN; phenate method), nitrite (diazotization and coupling method) and reactive phosphorus (ammonium molybdate method).
Filtered water samples were analysed by spectrophotometric methods for nitrate (N[O.sub.3.sup.-] cadmium reduction), nitrite (N[O.sub.2.sup.-] colorimetric method), ammonium (N[H.sub.4.sup.+] phenate method), orthophosphate (P[O.sub.4.sup.3-]) and dissolved silicate (D-Si) (vanadomolybdophosphoric acid method).
Ammonia concentrations in water samples were determined by the indophenol or phenate (phenol-hypochlorite) method.
We followed standard protocols (APHA 1992) for these analyses: CI, [SO.sub.4], [NO.sub.3]-N (4110-ion chromatography), [NH.sub.4]-N (4500-[NH.sub.3][G]-automated phenate), [PO.sub.4]-P (soluble reactive phosphate, 4500-P[E]-automated ascorbic acid), and suspended solids (2540[D]-gravimetric).
Traditionally, plant diseases control is achieved mainly through the use of fungicides such as thiabendazole, imazalil and sodium ortho-phenyl phenate were available for postharvest treatment to reduce decay and extend the shelf-life of fruits [13,23].
A 1:16 dilution of 2% glutaraldhyde-7.05% phenol-1.2% sodium phenate has been deleted as a high-level disinfectant;
Ammonia, nitrate and nitrite, and total phosphate and soluble reactive phosphate were determined using the phenate method, cadmium reduction method, and the ascorbic acid method, respectively.
It is possible that some of this difference may be due to different affinities of phenol (-OH) groups in the acid treated material and phenate (-[O.sup.-]) groups in the alkali treated material.
Nitrate-N was measured using USEPA standard method 353.2 (colorimetric, automated, cadmium reduction), ammonia N using EPA standard method 350.1 (colorimetric, automated phenate), and total P using EPA standard method 365.1 (colorimetric, automated, ascorbic acid) (USEPA, 1983).
The decrease of the 145 ppm peak indicates the transformation to phenate ions of the phenolic C3' and C4' hydroxygroups on the flavonoid B-ring, implying a considerable increase in its condensation reactivity, but particularly a changed shift due to substitutions on the normally free sites on the B-ring.