Phasmids were reared at room temperature in the Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, Davis, on an ad libitum diet of privet (Ligustrum sp.
To culture microbes, phasmids were anaesthetized on ice and surface sterilized in two changes of 70% ethanol anda rinse in sterile deionized water.
In all phasmids except Timema, small pouches of anterior midgut tissue, sometimes stil I pleated, mark the start of the anterior midgut, obscuring part of the foregut.
2-14 annuli anterior to anus 11 - Phasmids
on tail V.
Phasmids hide by day, so the researchers scoured crags and ledges for eggs and any droppings large enough to have come from big insects.
In related phasmids, unfertilized eggs eventually develop any way, into daughters.
tiaratum and other capitulum-bearing phasmids may serve to protect the phasmid egg from consumption by granivorous birds, or at least offset the loss of fitness due to this predation.
The similarity in size, coloration, toughness, and structure is strong enough that some botanists have mistaken phasmid eggs for the seeds of specific plant species (Brongniart 1887, Severin 1910).
The capitula of phasmid
eggs: an update with a review of the current state of phasmid
Subsequently it was included on the Phasmid
Study Group (PSG) culture list as PSG No.
sanguinipes (Stebbins & Hapner 1985), the phasmid
genus Ernodes Redtenbacher, 1908 is therefore a junior homonym of the genus Ernodes Wallengren, 1891.