An alteration of phantom limb pain
following visceral stimulation was reported by 42 of 75 (56%) patients.
Post operative treatment of phantom limb pain
and causalgias with calcitonin.
Phantom limb pain
is defined as painful sensations that feel as though they are coming from the portion of the limb that was amputated and that differ from nonpainful phantom limb sensations.
Phantom limb pain
is a poorly understood phenomenon, in which people who have lost a limb can experience severe pain, seemingly located in that missing part of the body.
Kristoffersen et al., "Phantom motor execution facilitated by machine learning and augmented reality as treatment for phantom limb pain
: a single group, clinical trial in patients with chronic intractable phantom limb pain
," The Lancet, vol.
MacLachlan, "Prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain
and residual limb pain in the long term after upper limb amputation," International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, vol.
Jensen, "Phantom limb pain
," British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol.
Subjects were enrolled from patients seeking treatment for pain at Pain Medicine Center of China Medical University Aviation General Hospital from October 2015 to October 2016, including postherpetic neuralgia, spinal cord injury, femoral head necrosis, lumbar disc herniation, trigeminal neuralgia, complex regional pain syndrome, perineal pain, phantom limb pain
, etc., (pain group, n = 111), and healthy volunteers without subjective pain (control group, n = 100) were also enrolled.
One specific theory, born from the inadequacy of conventional theories when it comes to explaining perplexing pain states, such as phantom limb pain
, is that of the "neuromatrix." (27) According to the neuromatrix theory, there is an "anatomical substrate of the body-self," represented by a large and widespread network of neurons that create loops between the thalamus and the cortex and between the cortex and the limbic system.
Two of the included studies used rehabilitation to treat phantom limb pain
;11,13 one of them used presenting virtual image of the lost limb and performing motor tasks,11 the other used phantom exercises and general exercise programme including strengthening, stretching, dynamic and isometric exercises.3 One of the included studies used Muscle Training System with visual feedback.7 One study used edema prevention, range of motion exercises, strengthening exercises and performing daily living activities for training of osseointegration.10 One study used signal strengthening, strengthening exercises, muscle relaxation exercises, diagnostic fitting, functional and activity exercises for training amputees with targeted mucle reinnervation (TMR).14
I'm still managing my CRPS with medication and have suffered some phantom limb pain
, but it is nothing in comparison to what I had before.