Fernandez reviews various passages from El diablo mundo detailing Espronceda's "enjambre de vanos fantasmas" asa literary and even rhythmic parallel to visual phantasmagoria
. He cites Gies's notion that Don Juan Tenorio represcnts a hybrid gente between romantic theater and the comedia de magia but notes that the long tradition of magic lantern shows featuring Tirso's El burlador de Sevilla y el convidado de piedra during the early nineteenth century may have significantly influenced not only Zorrilla but also the comedia de magia itself.
The most famous 'Fantasmagoria, Aparitions, evocation de Spectres & Fantomes ...' (6) of Etienne-Gaspard Robert--pseudonym Robertson--first performed in Paris in 1797, arrived in Spain over twenty years later, when phantasmagorias were already well known.
In the teatrillos the general public was entertained and flabbergasted daily with light and sound effects, smoke, phosphorous, stage tricks, optical apparatus and phantasmagorias, and the main theatre managers were not slow to incorporate these elements into plays at El Teatro de la Cruz and El Teatro del Principe.
(12) Other Goya drawings also bring to mind the phantasmagoria, but one in particular, which coincides with Robertson's shows in Madrid, is strikingly reminiscent.
'La fantasmagoria', a poem published in 1815 and attributed to a friend of Goya, Bartolome Jose Gallardo (1788-1852), (13) draws a number of parallels between Goya's witchcraft themes and phantasmagoria effects.
This is clearly a description of the 'dance of the witches' and 'multiplication of the witches', two of Robertson's phantasmagoria illusions.
The phantasmagoria also brings to mind Goya's Black paintings, in which there are figures floating and emerging from the shadows.