When immune cells engulf microbes trapped by antibodies, they hold them inside special pouches called phagosomes
. One way that the phagosomes
then destroy microbes is to create a supply of superoxide anions, which starts a cascade of reactions that produces hydrogen peroxide and then more toxic molecules, such as hydroxyl radical and hypohalous acid.
Moreover, many phagosomes
and big vacuoles were present (Figure 3(a)).
Dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis fails to block phagosome
maturation and shows unexpecte capacity to stimulate specific human T lymphocytes.
The mycobacterium tuberculosis phagosome
is a HLA-I processing competent organelle.
Reactive oxygen species are the major antibacterials * against Salmonella typhimurium purine auxotrophs in the phagosome
of RAW 264.7 cells.
For example, the recruitment of Sym32 homologs from plasma membranes to the symbiosome during early stages of symbiosome formation (Ganot et al, 2011) or the sequential addition of Rab GTPases during phagosome
maturation (Chen et al, 2004, 2005; Hong et al, 2009a) may not involve transcriptional changes, but they would potentially be detectable by proteomic analysis of symbiosomes.
formation and localization of signaling proteins were studied by immunostaining with fluorescent antibodies followed by confocal microscopy.
(26) Once inside, they escape within minutes from the phagosome
into the cytosol, and avoid destruction by lysosomal attack.
In addition, metabolic pathways (p = 0.008), PI3K-Akt signaling pathway (p = 0.016), tryptophan metabolism (p = 0.015), phagosome
(p = 0.044), and steroid hormone biosynthesis (p = 0.019) were identified.
Among the top 20 enriched KEGG terms, lysosome, endocytosis, and phagosome
were relevant to autophagy which is a catabolic process involving the degradation of dysfunctional cellular components by lysosomal systems .
However, we cannot rule out that other mechanisms such as fusion of granules containing antimicrobial effectors with the Mtb phagosome
could be altered in H37Rv-infected PMN exposed to M-CM.
In the macrophage phagosome
, the reaction between nitric oxide (NO*) and superoxide anion ([sup.*-][O.sub.2]) occurs at diffusion-controlled rates to form peroxynitrite (ONO[O.sup.-]) (see equation (4)) , which reacts with [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] to produce singlet oxygen (see equation (5)) .