pestis virulence factors are temperature regulated and may differentially facilitate cellular invasion, inhibition of the phagolysosome
pathway, and intracellular persistence (1,17,38).
equi interferes with phagosomal maturation and suppresses acidification of the phagosome to prevent the formation of phagolysosomes
Additionally, Brucella inhibits phagolysosome
fusion apoptosis, and downregulates antigen presentation (Skendros et al., 2011), which can lead to their escape from effector immune responses.
The presence of specific protein domains of TlyA in slow growing mycobacterial pathogen indicates its role in facilitating the internalization of mycobacteria inside the host cells by modulation of the phagolysosome
maturation pathway immediately after entry into macrophages.
(2014) Streptolysin O and NAD-glycohydrolase prevent phagolysosome
acidification and promote group A streptococcus survival in macrophages.
Chloroquine antagonizes the proinflammatory cytokine response to oppurtunistic fungi by alkalizing the fungal phagolysosome
. J Infect Dis 2001; 183(6):935-942.
More specifically, natural resistance associated with macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) is the only member of the mammalian SLC11 gene family which contributes to antimicrobial function by extruding from the phagolysosome
divalent metal ions (e.g., Mn2+).
In contrast, the neutrophils of CGD patients are usually able to destroy catalase negative organisms such as pneumococci, streptococci and others because of the [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] formed against the organism within the phagolysosome
. CGD can be inherited as either an X-linked or autosomal recessive disorder (Figure 1) with the genetic lesion caused by deletion, frame-shift, nonsense or missense mutations in the gene or gene promoters (3).
Decrease in bands' frequency and serum antibodies may be explained by inhibition of antigen presentation by repression of Class I and Class II MHC on infected host cells [5, 6], by interfering with the loading of antigens onto the MHC class II molecule  or sequestering the MHC II molecules and antigens within the phagolysosome
Thus, we supposed that the phagosome might have become phagolysosome
by connecting with the lysosome and that the particles were dissolved in it.
Rhodococcus equi can survive a phagolysossomal environment in macrophages by suppressing acidification of the phagolysosome
. Journal of Medical Microbiology, v.54, n.11, p.1007-1015, 2005.
Promastigotes attach to mononuclear phagocytes and are taken up by phagocytosis into a phagosome, which fuse with lysosomes to form the phagolysosome
. Once inside the macrophage, promastigote undergoes significant biochemical and metabolic changes and differentiate into the obligatory intracellular form of the parasite, the amastigote.