To further gain insights into the molecular response of neutrophils phagocytizing iRBCs, we performed gene transcriptional analyses by using oligonucleotide-based DNA mlcroarrays.
Given the possibility that the low percentage of the contaminating cells including monocytes in the PMN fraction may lead to incorrect results , we further compared the gene profile of PMNs to that of macrophages phagocytizing iRBCs .
Moreover, upregulated genes in PMNs phagocytizing iRBCs were categorized into multiple biological processes including cellular response to cytokine stimulus, cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, response to cytokine, signaling, regulation of the cellular process, cell communication, defense response, response to stimulus, and biological regulation (Figure 2(a) and Table S2).
The recent study referred to the relationship between the affected keratinized apoptotic vaginal epithelial cells and the phagocytizing
Also, the recorded amerolative effects of HES may result from the influx of neutrophils into the inflamed area, phagocytizing
the bacteria and digesting them.
Asbestos and nanomaterials are taken into the body, and free radicals are produced on their surface by inflammatory cells or epithelial cells phagocytizing
Caption: Large image: iron-rich ash from the Eyjafjallajokull eruption spread over thousands of square kilometers; inset: a high-power scanning electron microscopy image shows a smooth-surfaced alveolar macrophage in the process of engulfing ("phagocytizing
") ash particles collected by the authors.
It was expressed as the fraction of phagocytizing platelets and the phagocytic index.
Percentage of Phagocytizing Platelets and the Phagocytic Index
In other words, lung retention and clearance of NPs are thought to be mediated less by alveolar macrophages (AMs) than are those of larger particles because AMs in vivo are not efficient in phagocytizing
NPs--as they do in particles > 100 nm (Kreyling and Scheuch 2000).
Particle size Type Finding -10 nm PEG quantum dots Fast appearance of quantum dots in liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow (mouse) <220 nm Metallo-fullerene Highest accumulation in bone marrow after liver; continued increase in bone marrow but decrease in liver (mouse) 90-250 nm HSA-coated polylactic Significant accumulation in acid nanoparticles bone marrow, second to liver (rat) 240 nm Polystyrene Rapid passage through (nonbiodegradable) endothelium in bone marrow, polylisohexylcyonacrylate uptake by phagocytizing
(biodegradable) cells in tissue (mouse) Particle size Reference -10 nm Ballou et al.