personal care


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care

 [kār]
the services rendered by members of the health professions for the benefit of a patient. See also treatment.
acute care see acute care.
admission care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as facilitating entry of a patient into a health care facility.
adult day care a health care service provided for adults with a disability or illness who need partial or supplemental care and companionship during the day, when family members are working or otherwise unable to stay at home with a disabled relative. Among the services that may be offered at an adult day care center are nursing services (e.g., medication administration and health monitoring); nutritional and health education, health counseling; physical, speech, and occupational therapy; and socialization.
ambulatory care health services or acute care services that are provided on an outpatient basis.
amputation care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the promotion of physical and psychological healing after amputation of a body part.
bed rest care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of comfort and safety and prevention of complications for a patient unable to get out of bed. See also bed rest.
bladder care activities and interventions designed to maintain urinary bladder function, including bladder retraining, catheter change, and catheter irrigation.
bowel care activities and interventions designed to maintain bowel function, including enema, bowel training, diet, and medication.
bowel incontinence care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of bowel continence and maintenance of perianal skin integrity.
bowel incontinence care: encopresis in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of bowel continence in children.
cardiac care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the limitation of complications resulting from an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand for a patient with symptoms of impaired cardiac function.
cardiac care: acute in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the limitation of complications for a patient recently experiencing an episode of an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand resulting in impaired cardiac function.
cardiac care: rehabilitative in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the promotion of maximal functional activity level for a patient who has suffered an episode of impaired cardiac functon which resulted from an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand.
cast care activities and interventions designed to protect and maintain an immobilized body part, including relief of pain, pressure or constriction of circulation. See also hazards of immobility.
cast care: maintenance in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as care of a cast after the drying period.
cast care: wet in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as care of a new cast during the drying period.
cesarean section care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the preparation and support of a patient delivering a baby by cesarean section.
circulatory care: arterial insuficiency in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of arterial circulation.
circulatory care: mechanical assist device in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as temporary support of the circulation through the use of mechanical devices or pumps.
circulatory care: venous insufficiency in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of venous circulation.
contact lens care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the prevention of eye injury and lens damage by proper use of contact lenses.
continuing care the level of care in the health care system that consists of ongoing care of the physically handicapped, mentally retarded, emotionally retarded, and those suffering from chronic incapacitating illness.
cord care specialized care of the remnants of a newborn's umbilical cord until it falls off, consisting of cleaning and precautions to prevent infection. Cleansing protocols continue until the site is completely healed.
critical care intensive care.
culture-specific care those assistive, supportive, or facilitative acts toward or for an individual or group with evident or anticipated needs that are congruent with the values and lifestyles of an individual, family, or group of a specific culture, as used in the cultural care diversity and universality theory.
day care/respite in the omaha system, the providing by an individual or institution of supervision for a dependent child or adult in the abscence of the usual caregiver or parent.
developmental care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as structuring the environment and providing care in response to the behavioral cues and states of the preterm infant.
direct care the provision of services to a patient that require some degree of interaction between the patient and the health care provider. Examples include assessment, performing procedures, teaching, and implementation of a care plan.
dying care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of physical comfort and psychological peace in the final phase of life. See also dying.
ear care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as prevention or minimization of threats to ear or hearing.
embolus care: peripheral in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as limitation of complications for a patient experiencing, or at risk for, occlusion of peripheral circulation. See also embolus.
embolus care: pulmonary in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as limitation of complications for a patient experiencing, or at risk for, occlusion of pulmonary circulation. See also embolus.
emergency care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as providing life-saving measures in life-threatening situations. See also emergency.
episodic care interventions aimed at patient cure or restoration to previous level of functioning.
eye care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the prevention or minimization of threats to eye or visual integrity.
family-centered maternity care a pattern of caring for infants and their families used by Health and Welfare Canada. It is characterized by a great deal of flexibility and parental choice, and health care professionals are encouraged to individualize care. Breast feeding and rooming in are encouraged and grandparent and sibling visits are permitted.
foot care see foot care.
hair care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the promotion of neat, clean, and attractive hair.
health care see health care system.
high-risk pregnancy care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as identification and management of a high-risk pregnancy to promote healthy outcomes for mother and baby.
home health care see home health care.
incision site care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as cleansing, monitoring, and promotion of healing in a wound that is closed with sutures, clips, or staples.
indirect care services that are related to patient care but do not require interaction between the health care provider and the patient. Examples include charting and scheduling.
infant care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the provision of developmentally appropriate family-centered care to the child under one year of age.
intensive care the care of seriously ill patients in a special hospital unit; see intensive care unit. Called also critical care.
intrapartal care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the monitoring and management of stages one and two of the birth process. See labor.
intrapartal care: high-risk delivery in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as assisting vaginal birth of multiple or malpositioned fetuses.
kangaroo care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promoting closeness between parent and physiologically stable preterm infant by preparing the parent and providing the environment for skin-to-skin contact.
kinlein care kinlein.
long-term care health care services required for an extended period of time by individuals unable to fully execute activities of daily living; it can be provided by a variety of agencies in outpatient settings as well as on an inpatient basis.
managed care a method of health care delivery that focuses on collaboration among and coordination of all services to avoid overlap, duplication, and delays and to reduce costs. There is an emphasis on efficacy and timeliness of interventions to prevent unnecessary delays in discharge from the hospital or agency.
medical/dental care in the omaha system, diagnosis and treatment by a physician or dentist.
mouth care see mouth care.
nail care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of clean, neat, attractive nails and prevention of skin lesions related to improper care of nails.
newborn care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of the neonate during the transition to extrauterine life and the subsequent period of stabilization.
nursing care in the omaha system, therapeutic activities in addition to intermittent service, including private duty nursing.
ostomy care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as maintenance of elimination through a stoma and care of surrounding tissue. See also ostomy.
ostomy care (omaha) in the omaha system, management of elimination through artificial openings, including colostomy and ileostomy.
palliative care supportive care.
perineal care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as maintenance of perianal skin integrity and relief of perineal discomfort.
peripherally inserted central catheter care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as insertion and maintenance of a peripherally inserted central catheter.
personal care the management of hygiene, including bathing, shampooing, shaving, nail trimming, dressing, and so on.
point of care the location at which patient services are delivered.
postanesthesia care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as monitoring and management of the patient who has recently undergone general or regional anesthesia.
postmortem care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as providing physical care of the body of an expired patient and support for the family viewing the body.
postoperative care see postoperative care.
postpartal care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as monitoring and management of the patient who has recently given birth.
pregnancy termination care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the management of the physical and psychological needs of the woman undergoing a spontaneous or elective abortion.
prenatal care
1. care of the pregnant woman before delivery of the infant. See also pregnancy.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as monitoring and management of the patient during pregnancy to prevent complications of pregnancy and promote a healthy outcome for both mother and infant.
preoperative care see preoperative care.
pressure ulcer care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as facilitation of healing in pressure ulcers.
preventive care the level of care in the health care system that consists of public health services and related programs such as school health education.
primary care the routine outpatient care that a patient receives at first contact with the health care system.
prosthesis care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the care of a removable appliance worn by a patient and the prevention of complications associated with its use. See also prosthesis.
respiratory care see respiratory care.
respite care
1. services provided by a health care agency that permit a primary caregiver temporary relief from caring for an ill individual.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the provision of short-term care to provide relief for a family caregiver.
restorative care the level of care in the health care system that consists of follow-up care and rehabilitation to an optimal functional level.
secondary care
1. treatment by specialists to whom a patient has been referred by primary care facilities; see also health care system.
self care the performance of basic activities of daily living; see also under assistance and deficit.
sickness/injury care in the omaha system, the appropriate responses to illness or accidents, including first aid, taking temperature, and seeking medical care.
skilled nursing care the services provided by a registered nurse in a skilled nursing facility. It currently includes observation during periods of acute or unstable illness; administration of intravenous fluids, enteral feedings, and intravenous or intramuscular medications; short-term bowel and bladder retraining; and changing of sterile dressings.
skin care activities and interventions designed to maintain integrity of integument, including care of pressure ulcers and massage.
skin care: topical treatments in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the application of topical substances or manipulation of devices to promote skin integrity and minimize skin breakdown.
spiritual care see spiritual care.
subacute care comprehensive goal-oriented inpatient care designed for a patient who has had an acute illness, injury, or exacerbation of a disease process; it is rendered either immediately after or instead of acute care hospitalization, to treat specific active or complex medical conditions or to administer any necessary technically complex medical treatments in the context of the person's underlying long-term condition.
supportive care interventions that help the patient achieve comfort but do not affect the course of a disease. Called also palliative care or treatment.
tertiary care the level of care in the health care system that consists of complex procedures given in a health care center that has highly trained specialists and often advanced technology.
total patient care a method of organizing care of patients such that one practitioner carries out all care requirements.
traction/immobilization care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of a patient who has traction and/or a stabilizing device to immobilize and stabilize a body part.
tube care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of a patient with an external drainage device exiting the body.
tube care: chest in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of a patient with an external water-seal drainage device exiting the chest cavity.
tube care: gastrointestinal in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of a patient with a gastrointestinal tube.
tube care: umbilical line in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of a newborn with an umbilical catheter.
tube care: urinary in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of a patient with urinary drainage equipment.
tube care: ventriculostomy/lumbar drain in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of a patient with an external cerebrospinal fluid drainage system. See also ventriculostomy and drain.
urinary incontinence care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as assistance in promoting continence and maintaining perineal skin integrity. See also urinary incontinence.
urinary incontinence care: enuresis in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of urinary continence in children.
urinary retention care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as assistance in relieving bladder distention. See also retention of urine.
wound care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as prevention of wound complications and promotion of wound healing.
wound care: closed drainage in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as maintenance of a pressure drainage system at the wound site.

personal care

n.
The occupation of attending to the physical needs of people who are disabled or otherwise unable to take care of themselves, including activities of daily living such as bathing and cooking.

care

(kar)
In health care, the application of professional skill, often including love, support, and concern, to provide health benefits to a person or a community.

acute care

Health care delivered to patients who have experienced sudden illness or injury, or who are recovering from a procedure or operation. Acute care generally occurs in the prehospital or hospital setting or in the emergency department and is usually focused on the immediate, critical problems of the patient.

adult day care

Abbreviation: ADC
A licensed agency where the chronically ill, disabled, or cognitively impaired can stay during the day under health care supervision. Most people attending adult day care are older and need some assistance. They are able to participate in structured activities and to walk with or without an assistive device. Most day care centers operate 5 days a week for 8 to 12 hr a day.

adult foster care

Long-term care for adults who are unable to live alone due to physical, emotional, or developmental impairments. This care is offered in a variety of settings, including a facility that resembles a family residence. Such a facility may have fewer regulations than a nursing home.

best supportive care

Ideal patient care, e.g., health care that meets the patient's nutritional, philosophical, psychological, physical, medical, surgical, and social needs.

charity care

Care provided to patients who are not expected to be able to pay for the services they receive.
See: bad debt

cluster care

A system of home care for older adults that allows the needs of many clients who live in proximity to be met by a team of workers.

culturally competent care

The provision of health care with tolerance and respect for people of all ages, nationalities, races, beliefs, and customs.

day care

The supervision of dependents during working hours. The goals of day care are to provide adequate, affordable care for young children or dependent adults, esp. while the primary caregivers are at work.

developmentally appropriate care

Care that suits the patient's stage of life by meeting his or her cognitive, emotional, and social needs.

due care

1. The kind of care that a competent, responsible, and interested provider will give to an individual in need.
2. Care that meets generally accepted community standards.

emergency cardiac care

Abbreviation: ECC
The basic and advanced life support assessment and treatment necessary to manage sudden and often life-threatening events affecting cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. ECC includes identifying the nature of the problem, monitoring the patient closely, providing basic and advanced life support as quickly as possible, preventing complications, reassuring the patient, and transporting the patient to the most appropriate facility for definitive cardiac care.
See: advanced cardiac life support; basic life support; cardiopulmonary resuscitation

end-of-life care

Supportive care for the dying. Such care includes invasive interventions such as advanced cardiac life support, or supportive interventions, such as educational, emotional, physical, or social assistance to the terminally ill and their families and significant others.

evidence-based health care

The concept that the practice of medicine should be based on firm data rather than anecdote, tradition, intuition, or belief.
Synonym: evidence-based medicine; evidence-based practice

family-centered care

The integration and collaboration of family members in the patient care team, esp. in the care of dependent infants, children, or adults with complex or continuing health care needs.

Patient care

Family and friends are increasingly needed to provide patient care. Although researchers have identified the “typical caregiver” as a 46-year-old female with some college education, in actuality anyone in the infirm individual’s circle may be called upon to provide care. The care provided may vary from simply helping with driving or shopping, to managing treatment and medications, to providing assistance with activities of daily living, such as bathing, feeding, toileting, and transferring the patient, or helping the patient make health care decisions and choices. The health care professional should identify the primary caregiver(s), recognize the level of strain occurring, and develop a partnership to reduce the burden of care and prevent caregiver exhaustion and burnout. In addition to psychosocial support, the family caregiver may benefit from practical instruction about how to perform caregiving activities, never assuming that the caregiver knows what to do or how to do it. Health care professionals should be available to step in when situational demands exceed the family caregiver’s capabilities, and to step back when the family’s support is what is needed most. Caregivers need to seek their own support from family, friends, community agencies, support groups, or/or their faith community.

foster care

The care of individuals who cannot live independently (such as children, homeless families, or frail elderly people) in a group or private home.

futile care

In clinical practice, esp. in the care of patients at the end of life, any intervention that will not improve a patient's health, well-being, comfort, or prognosis.
See: advance directive; hospice

health care

All of the services made available by medical professionals to promote, maintain, or preserve life and well-being. Its major objectives are to relieve pain; treat injury, illness, and disability; and provide comfort and hope.

home health care

The provision of equipment and services to patients in their homes to restore and maintain the patients' maximal levels of comfort, function, and health.

hospital-at-home care

A form of community-based treatment in which acute medical problems are actively addressed in the patient's home by trained health care specialists in place of similar care provided in-hospital. It has been used to treat both medical issues (such as congestive heart failure, COPD, or end-of-life) and also postoperative recuperation. Although hospital-at-home care has been proposed as a low-cost alternative to inpatient care, its cost structure is not clearly more favorable than inpatient treatment.

informal care

Care that is provided to the very young, the very old, the weak, the poor, and the sick by family, friends, neighbors, and concerned citizens, rather than by trained, licensed, or certified health care professionals.

intensive care

1. Care of critically ill patients by continuous monitoring of various body functions.
2. An intensive care unit.

kangaroo care

The placing of a newborn directly onto the mother's skin to enhance bonding, regulate body temperature, improve the infant's oxygenation, or increase the mother's production of milk.

long-term care

Abbreviation: LTC
A range of continuous health care or social services for those with chronic physical or mental impairments, or both. LTC provides for basic needs and promotes optimal functioning. It includes care in assisted living facilities, the home, hospice, and nursing homes.
See: nursing home

managed care

Any of the methods of financing and organizing the delivery of health care in which costs are contained by controlling the provision of benefits and services. Physicians, hospitals, and other health care agencies contract with the system to accept a predetermined monthly payment for providing services to patients who are enrolled in a managed care plan. Enrollee access to care may be limited to the physicians and other health care providers who are affiliated with the plan. In general, managed care attempts to control costs by overseeing and altering the behavior of their providers. Clinical decision making is influenced by a variety of administrative incentives and constraints. Incentives affect the health care provider's financial return for professional services. Constraints include specific rules, regulations, practice guidelines, diagnostic and treatment protocols, or algorithms. Care is overseen by quality assurance procedures and utilization reviews.
See: cost awareness; cost-effectiveness; gatekeeper; Health Maintenance Organization; managed competition; resource-based relative value scale

medical care

The use of medical skills to benefit a patient.

monitored anesthesia care

Abbreviation: MAC
Repeated careful evaluation of a patient's airway, breathing, blood pressure, and organ perfusion during deep sedation or general anesthesia.

mouth care

Personal and bedside care of the oral cavity including the gingivae, teeth, lips, epithelial covering of the mucosa, pharynx, and tongue. People who are normally able to provide their own oral hygiene may require help in maintaining a healthy oral environment when they are ill. The intensity and frequency of care is dictated by the patient's comfort; the severity of the illness; potential or existing irritation or inflammation secondary to trauma or therapy; and the patient's state of consciousness, level of cooperation, and ability to care for himself or herself.
See: stomatitis

nurse-led care

Health care managed by and provided primarily by advanced practitioner nurses. Many community health centers are led by advanced practitioner nurses.

personal care

Self-care (2).

prehospital care

The care a patient receives from an emergency medical service before arriving at the hospital. This is usually done by emergency medical technicians and paramedics.
See: out-of-hospital.

prenatal care

The regular monitoring and management of the health status of the pregnant woman and her fetus during gestation. Comprehensive care is based on a thorough review of the woman's medical, surgical, obstetrical and gynecological, nutritional, and social history, and that of the family for indications of genetic or other risk factors. Laboratory analyses provide important data describing the woman's current health status and indications for treatment and anticipatory guidance. Periodic visits are scheduled to evaluate changes in blood pressure, weight, fundal height, fetal heart rate, and fetal activity, and to assess for any signs of emerging health problems. To enable the patient's active participation in care and to facilitate early diagnosis and prompt treatment of emerging problems, emphasis is placed on anticipatory guidance and patient teaching. The health care professional describes and discusses nutrition and diet (including the importance of folate supplementation), self-management of common minor complaints, and signs to report promptly to the primary caregiver; helps patients gain access to resources available for preparation for childbirth, breastfeeding, newborn care, and parenting; and provides support and counseling.
See: pregnancy; prenatal diagnosis; table *Not all these tests are performed on all expectant mothers.
Name of testType of testWhat it reveals
Alpha fetoproteinBloodIncreased risk for fetus of Down syndrome or neural tube defects, such as meningomyelocoele
AmniocentesisInvasiveGenetic diseases such as Down syndrome
Beta strep cultureVaginal swabColonization of the vagina with group B beta streptococcus, a source of neonatal sepsis
Blood typeBloodABO blood type; Rh antigen
ChlamydiaCervical swabInfection with Chlamydia trachomatis
Glucose tolerance testingBloodGestational diabetes mellitus
GC/GonorrheaCervical swabInfection with Neisseria gonorrheae
HemoglobinBloodAnemia (maternal)
Hepatitis B antigen and/or antibodyBloodPresence of chronic or active hepatitis
Human immunodeficiency virus antibody testBloodHIV/AIDS infection
Pap testCervical sampleCancer of the uterine cervix
Rubella antigenBloodImmunity to German measles
Triple or quad marker screenBloodBirth defects such as Down syndrome or spina bifida
UltrasonographyRadiologic, noninvasiveAge of the fetus; multiple pregnancies; developmental abnormalities; quantity of amniotic fluid
UrinalysisUrine Urinary tract infection; chronic kidney disease; proteinuria, e.g. in preeclampsia
Varicella-Zoster antibodyBloodImmunity to chickenpox
VDRL, RPR, FTA-ABS, othersBloodInfection with syphilis

prepaid care

Managed care in which a patient or group contracts for all its health care services in advance, instead of paying for each service when it is delivered.

primary care

Integrated, accessible, basic health care provided where the patient first seeks medical assistance by clinicians responsible for most of the patient's personal health care, including health maintenance, therapy during illnesses, and consultation with specialists.

relationship-centered care

Health care that explicitly recognizes the importance of patients, their supporters, their community, their providers, and their health care administrators as they jointly affect the experience of health, disease prevention, and treatment.

residential care

Care provided in a live-in facility other than the patient's home. The very young, the very old, and those with physical infirmities, or behavioral or substance abuse problems are often treated in residential care centers.

respiratory care

The evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation of patients with cardiopulmonary disease by respiratory therapy professionals working under a physician's supervision.

respite care

Provision of short-term care to the elderly, disabled, or chronically ill of a community to allow caregivers a temporary relief from their responsibilities. The care may be provided either in the patient's home, church, community center, nursing home, or caregiver's home.

restorative care

Rehabilitation (1).

secondary medical care

Medical care of a patient by a physician acting as a consultant. The provider of primary medical care usually refers the patient for expert or specialty consultation or for a second opinion.

secondary nursing care

Nursing care aimed at early recognition and treatment of disease. It includes general nursing intervention and teaching of early signs of disease so that prompt medical care by a physician, nurse practitioner, speech therapist, or other appropriate provider can be obtained. See: preventive nursing

simultaneous care

In patients with potentially terminal illnesses, the combined or alternating use of palliative and curative therapies.

skilled care

Medical care provided by licensed professionals working under the direction of a physician.

stepped care

Treatment that follows a predetermined or algorithmic sequence. The simplest, most affordable, or most broadly effective treatment regimen is used first. If that fails or causes side effects, other options are employed one after another until an endpoint is reached.

survivorship care

A plan for patient follow-up that links the treatments a patient has received from an oncologist and the needs of the patient after intensive cancer treatments have been completed. With about 10 million cancer survivors in the U.S., and that number rising, survivors are living longer and receiving more fragmented care. A follow-up care plan helps communicate to the patient and his or her future health care providers details of cancer staging, treatment, and disease surveillance that may otherwise be misunderstood or neglected. According to the Institute of Medicine, such a plan should include the following elements: 1. a clear, concisely written statement of the patient's diagnosis, the methods used in treatment (such as what specific chemotherapeutic drugs and what doses of radiation), and the expected or potential effects of that treatment; 2. detailed information about the need for specific follow-up services and a timetable specifying when such services should be delivered; 3. information about secondary disease prevention (including the detection of cancer recurrence and the need for monitoring for secondary cancers); 4. information about the availability of support services and agencies in the patient's community; 5. information for the patient about legal protections after diagnosis, including employment and insurance.

Survivor care plans are often drawn up and given to patients by oncologists or advanced practice nurses. They should address concerns about nutrition, physical activity, exercise, and mobility; elimination; cognition and perception; pain and discomfort; sleep, and rest; self-perception; relationships with spouse, parents, children, other family members, and friends; and sexuality and reproductive issues.

tactical combat casualty care

Abbreviation: TCCC
Treatment provided to military personnel while engaged in battle.

tertiary medical care

A level of medical care in a facility staffed and equipped to administer comprehensive care. This level of care is usually provided in a large hospital to which the patient has been referred or transferred. It includes techniques and methods of therapy and diagnosis involving equipment and personnel not economically feasible in a smaller institution because of underutilization.

tracheostomy care

Management of the tracheostomy wound and the airway device. The patient should be suctioned as often as necessary to remove secretions. Sterile technique is maintained throughout the procedure. Before suctioning, the patient should be aerated well, which can be accomplished by using an Ambu bag attached to a source of oxygen. The patency of the suction catheter is tested by aspirating sterile normal saline through it. The catheter is inserted without applying suction, until the patient coughs. Suction is then applied intermittently and the catheter withdrawn in a rotating motion. The lungs are auscultated by assessing the airway, and the suctioning procedure is repeated until the airway is clear. Each suctioning episode should take no longer than 15 sec, and the patient should be allowed to rest and breathe between suctioning episodes. The suction catheter is cleansed with sterile normal saline solution, as is the oral cavity if necessary. The inner cannula should be cleansed or replaced after each aspiration. Metal cannulas should be cleansed with sterile water.

An emergency tracheotomy kit is kept at the bedside at all times. A Kelly clamp is also kept at the bedside to hold open the tracheostomy site in an emergency. Unless ordered otherwise, cuffed tracheostomy tubes must be inflated if the patient is receiving positive-pressure ventilation. In other cases, the cuff is kept deflated if the patient has problems with aspiration. The dressing and tape are changed every 8 hr, using aseptic technique. Skin breakdown is prevented by covering tracheostomies with an oval dressing between the airway device and the skin. To apply neck tapes, two lengths of twill tape approx. 10 in (25 cm) long are obtained; the end of each is folded and a slit is made 0.5 in (1.3 cm) long about 1 in (2.5 cm) from the fold. The slit end is slipped under the neck plate and the other end of the tape pulled through the slit. This is repeated for the other side. The tape is wrapped around the neck and secured with a square knot on the side. Neck tapes should be left in place until new tapes are attached. Tracheal secretions are cultured as ordered; their color, viscosity, amount, and abnormal odor, if any, are observed. The site is inspected daily for bleeding, hematoma formation, subcutaneous emphysema, and signs of infection. Appropriate skin care is provided. The medical care team should help alleviate the patient's anxiety and apprehension and communicate openly with the patient. The patient's response is documented.

See: Suctioning: Tracheostomy, Portable Open System

transitional care

Health care services provided to patients after hospitalization in an acute care facility before they are ready to return to their homes. Transitional care shortens acute hospital stays, decreases health care costs, and provides a period for recuperation for patients still unable to thrive independently. Facilities used in transitional care include rehabilitation units, long-term care hospitals, subacute care facilities, hospice services, and some home care services.

uncompensated care

Health care provided to those who are uninsured and unable to pay for the services they receive. In the U.S. most uncompensated care is provided for in a relatively small number of urban hospitals.

wound care

Any technique that enhances the healing of skin abrasions, blisters, cracks, craters, infections, lacerations, necrosis, and/or ulcers. Wound care involves 1. local care to the skin, with débridement and dressings; 2. careful positioning of the affected body part to avoid excessive pressure on the wound; 3. application of compression or medicated bandages; 4. treatment of edema or lymphedema; 5. treatment of infection; 6. optimization of nutrition and of blood glucose levels; 7. the use of supports and cushions; and 8. maximization of blood flow and oxygen. Website: Association for the Advancement of Wound Care: www.aawcone.org/patientresources.shtml

Patient discussion about personal care

Q. what should i do if i got burned from boiling water? how should i take care of my self? will i get a scar?

A. ooooOOOooo! i hope you are asking a hypothetic question... a friend wife of mine still got scars from a boiling water accident a few years back. anyway, here is a site that gives instructions on how to react after burns. boiling water is probably second degree burns:
http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/healthy/firstaid/after-injury/638.html

Q. How can I help myself? I some times have dizziness when I drive (I work as a truck driver), and really needs find a way to cope with it. I can't afford myself to lose this job. Do you have any advice?

A. I also have similiar problems, and when I fell dizzy during driving I pull to the side, drink something, and do realxation exercises (like breathing deeply), and usually the dizziness abates after several minutes. See what helps you, and you should also consult your doctor about it.

Q. I would like to improve myself besides taking meds. Can any one advice me? Hi I’m Genaro with FM (Fibromyalgia). I am taking meds regularly which is prescribed by my physician. I would like to improve myself besides taking meds. Can any one advice me?

More discussions about personal care
References in periodicals archive ?
Community based support hand in hand with personal care services for the recovering mentally ill.
Nor would it benefit the least well off as seven out of ten people receiving personal care receive care free.
Personal care residents and independent living residents eat in the same main dining room; nursing home residents go there when they're able.
During his career Galli has held various leading positions in the personal care industry in product and commercial management.
On the downside, by contracting out the personal care component of the service package, the community relinquishes any operating margins that could be reasonably expected through the delivery of these services with its own staff.
Be aware of the personal care trends that are most relevant for the food and drink sector and understand how these can add value and increase margins.
As the name suggests, chemicals are used in the manufacture of synthetic personal care products.
She has over 13 years' experience in the personal care industry including experience as an R&D lab manager.
Foam or spray dispensers are widely used in personal care and can allow for transformation of the packaged product into a new phase or format.
com/research/nml2xt/personal_care) has announced the addition of the "2014 Report on the International Personal Care Packaging (Skin Care, Hair Care, Bath & Shower, Cosmetics and Other Applications) Market - Forecast to 2019" report to their offering.
com/research/476878/the_north_american) has announced the addition of the "The North American Market for Natural & Organic Personal Care Products - 2nd Edition" report to their offering.