This study would compare the stiffness of the Y-shaped, parallel and perpendicular plate configuration by applying the same loads as those applied in the finite element analysis.
Maximum von Mises stresses in the bones and plates Axial compression Parallel Anterior Radial gap gap gap Parallel plate Bone 10.86 14.42 22.46 Plate 309.40 173.30 152.40 Perpendicular plate Bone 18.48 25.06 46.29 Plate 280.40 255.30 205.30 Y plate Bone 25.01 32.56 48.49 Plate 567.40 276.80 160.30 Posterior deflection Varus loading Parallel Anterior Radial Parallel Anterior gap gap gap gap gap Parallel plate 13.98 15.02 15.09 14.12 20.51 143.10 119.60 140.30 160.80 153.60 Perpendicular plate 14.95 15.01 15.12 15.19 15.47 152.40 137.20 149.70 193.80 165.80 Y plate 14.87 15.37 15.42 16.54 22.58 189.00 221.10 220.90 189.00 83.66 Radial gap Parallel plate 23.64 153.60 Perpendicular plate 18.45 165.90 Y plate 22.67 83.68
The ethmoid is ossified in the cartilage of the nasal capsule at three centers: one for the perpendicular plate
, and one for each labyrinth.
Then a mucoperichondrial flap was elevated from this part of septum up to the perpendicular plate of ethmoid.
Perpendicular plate was separated from quadrangular septal cartilage.
Care is taken to raise the flaps down to the maxillary crest and extend them back to the bony-cartilagenous junction of the perpendicular plate
of the ethmoid, vomer, and quandrangular cartilage (figure 2).
It is formed almost entirely by two bones, the vomer and the perpendicular plate
of the ethmoid.
The endoscope was then advanced under fluoroscopic guidance until the tip of the scope was at the level of the foreign body, which was located at the posterior aspect of the perpendicular plate
. A sickle knife was used to make a small mucosal incision.
(3) Shearing forces may cause fractures of the cribiform plate at its junction with the perpendicular plate
of the ethmoid.
Then the surface area of each of the sixbony components--the perpendicular plate
of the ethmoid bone, the vomer, the sphenoid bone, the nasal process of the frontal bone, the nasal bone, and the palatine crest--was measured with a transparent grid calibrated in square millimeters, Then we calculated the contributions that each of these bones made to the total osseous surface area and the contribution that the total bony component made to the total chondro-osseous septal surface area.
Maintaining an intact septal L strut and keystone area (i.e., the junction of the dorsal quadrangular cartilage and the perpendicular plate
) is imperative in order to prevent nasal-tip collapse.
 A mucosal incision would expose the sphenopalatine neurovascular bundle at the upper end of the perpendicular plate
of the palatine bone.