peritoneum


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Related to peritoneum: Parietal peritoneum, Visceral peritoneum

peritoneum

 [per″ĭ-to-ne´um]
the serous membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities (parietal peritoneum) and investing contained viscera (visceral peritoneum), the two layers enclosing a potential space, the peritoneal cavity.

per·i·to·ne·um

, pl.

pe·ri·to·ne·a

(per'i-tō-nē'ŭm, -ă), [TA]
The serous sac, consisting of mesothelium and a thin external layer of irregular connective tissue, that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers most of the viscera contained therein; it forms two sacs: the peritoneal (or greater) sac and the omental bursa (lesser sac) connected by the omental foramen.
Synonym(s): membrana abdominis
[Mod. L. fr. G. peritonaion, fr. periteinō, to stretch over]

peritoneum

/peri·to·ne·um/ (-to-ne´um) the serous membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities (parietal p.) and investing the contained viscera (visceral p.), the two layers enclosing a potential space, the peritoneal cavity.peritone´al
Enlarge picture
Course of the peritoneum (gray) in a median sagittal section of a female.

peritoneum

also

peritonaeum

(pĕr′ĭ-tn-ē′əm)
n. pl. peri·tonea also peri·tonaea (-tn-ē′ə)
The serous membrane that lines the walls of the abdominal cavity and folds inward to enclose the viscera.

per′i·to·ne′al adj.
per′i·to·ne′al·ly adv.

peritoneum

[per′itənē′əm]
Etymology: Gk, peri + teinein, to stretch
an extensive serous membrane that lines the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera. It is divided into the parietal peritoneum and the visceral peritoneum. In men the peritoneum is a closed membranous sac. In women it is perforated by the free ends of the uterine tubes. The free surface of the peritoneum is smooth mesothelium, lubricated by serous fluid that permits the viscera to glide easily against the abdominal wall and against one another. The mesentery of the peritoneum fans out from the main membrane to suspend the small intestine. Other parts of the peritoneum are the transverse mesocolon, the greater omentum, and the lesser omentum. peritoneal, adj.

per·i·to·ne·um

(per'i-tŏ-nē'ŭm, -ă) [TA]
The serous membrane, consisting of mesothelium and connective tissue, that lines the abdominal cavity and covers most of the viscera contained therein; it forms two sacs: the peritoneal (or greater) sac and the omental bursa (lesser sac), connected by the epiploic foramen.
[Mod. L. fr. G. peritonaion, fr. periteinō, to stretch over]

peritoneum

(pĕr″ĭ-tō-nē′ŭm) [LL., Gr. peritonaion]
Enlarge picture
PERITONEUM: Seen laparoscopically (mag. ×½)
The largest serous membrane of the body, made up of the following five different folds: the greater omentum, lesser omentum, falciform ligament, mesentery, and mesocolon. These folds line the abdominal cavity and are reflected over the viscera. They connect organs within the abdomen together and protect and support the organs.

Examination

Diseases that affect the peritoneum can be assessed with gentle and careful percussion and palpation of the abdomen. Localized or diffuse peritonitis, for example, may be evident when the abdomen is tapped with a percussing finger (the patient will wince, guard the abdomen, and complain that the percussion is very painful); it may also be evident when the abdominal wall is gently depressed and then released (release of the examining hand causes guarding and discomfort). Fluid within the peritoneum (ascites) may be suggested by shifting dullness on percussion of the abdominal wall, or by the detection of a fluid wave when one hand depresses and releases on one side of the abdomen, while the other hand gently holds the opposite side.

See: illustration

parietal peritoneum

Peritoneum lining the abdominal walls and the undersurface of the diaphragm.

visceral peritoneum

Peritoneum that invests the abdominal organs. The peritoneum holds the viscera in place by its folds, which are called the mesentery.

peritoneum

The double-layered, serum-secreting membrane that lines the inner wall of the ABDOMEN and covers, and to some extent supports, the abdominal organs. The fluid secreted by the peritoneum acts as a lubricant to allow free movement of organs such as the intestines. The peritoneum contains blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves. From the Greek peri , round about, and teinein , to stretch.

peritoneum

the thin membrane of mesodermal origin that lines the body cavity covers the heart, and forms mesenteries.

Peritoneum

The transparent membrane lining the abdominal cavity that holds organs such as the intestines in place.

peritoneum

the serous membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities (parietal peritoneum) and investing contained viscera (visceral peritoneum), the two layers enclosing a potential space, the peritoneal cavity. The diseases which are important in the peritoneum of animals are peritonitis, including a special group of rectal tear, retroperitoneal abscess, lipomatosis, neoplasia, ascites and peritoneal effusion.
References in periodicals archive ?
Pla genes obtained from 2 of the peritoneum samples collected from black rats were sequenced and appeared to be identical (GenBank accession no.
The first cases reported in the literature have been peritoneal tumors of young women, but in more recent series of cases, the disease has been equally common in males and has been described in the pleura, pericardium, and in the tunica vaginalis testis, in addition to peritoneum.
These spindle-cell tumors were originally described in the pleura and peritoneum.
Aristotle, peritoneum was also the word for the outermost membrane of
This cancer-specific fluorescence allowed the investigators to successfully visualize very small tumors in the peritoneum - the tissue that lines the wall of the abdomen - in mice with ovarian cancer.
It may also occur when the peritoneum is irritated by organ contents, such as bile from an inflamed gall bladder, digestive enzymes from an inflamed pancreas, or stomach acid that escapes through a perforated stomach ulcer, that leak into the abdominal cavity.
To perform the pinch-an-inch test, a fold of abdominal skin over McBurney's point is grasped and elevated away from the peritoneum.
Asbestos can cause a number of diseases of the lung, including asbestosis, a scarring of the lungs and cancers of the bronchi, pleura and peritoneum.
Laparoscopy showed diffuse neoplastic infiltration of the peritoneum.
They implanted the tissue into a fold of peritoneum, and 2 weeks later, the cells had grown, undergone differentiation, and stained positive for insulin.
Intraperitoneal: administered or introduced in the peritoneum (abdomen).
This unusual but benign mass, which has a distinct sonographic appearance, has also been referred to as benign encysted fluid, inflammatory cyst of the peritoneum, peritoneal pseudocyst, entrapped ovarian cyst, multilocular peritoneal cyst, and postoperative peritoneal cyst (1).