2001) and the Cannaceae, Costaceae, Marantaceae and Zingiberaceae families would represent a unique clade, based on characters such as reduction of androecia to an only functional stamen, large and conspicuous staminodia, seeds with perisperm
, absence of raphides in parenchymatic tissues and entire, firm and not torn leaves (Judd et al.
Since the outer cotyledon adhered to the remaining nucellus (perisperm
) and seed coat tissues during milling of dry seeds, the bran milling fraction containing embryo fragments was a good source of fagopyritols (Steadman et al., 2000).
Ovules are basally attached in both Dasypogon and Calectasia, and possess a massive starchy nucellus (perisperm
: see also Rudall 1994).
Mechanical disruption of the seed structure (i.e., seed coat, perisperm
) may occur at high temperature, as in priming (Oluoch and Welbaum, 1996).
There are also other terms that are used in the descriptions of cycad, seeds and embryos that need clarification such as endotesta, perisperm
, epicotyl and hypocotyl.
Other nucellar and chalazal structures, such as hypostase, perisperm
, and chalazosperm, are regarded as being of some systematic significance in monocotyledons and are used as characters in analyses.
Likewise, the term "ruminate endosperm" must not be used if only the perisperm
is affected, as in Piperaceae and Marantaceae (Huber, pers.