Periphlebitis is more common in the active phase of MS, and leakage due to perivenous inflammation may be observed on FFA.
(8) Our case used systemic IFN-[beta]-1a for 7 years, and we also observed that retinal periphlebitis and intermediate uveitis findings were under control, visual acuity had been protected for 2 years, and there were no signs of macular edema.
and venous sheathing may be present in sarcoidosis and multiple sclerosis.
Vasoactive and inflammatory mediators cause capillary leakage, which may form the basis for macular edema and breakdown of the aqueous blood barrier, resulting in anterior uveitis and periphlebitis
. In the series reported by Lim et al., ocular complications were mainly confined to the maculae (5).
Kinyas and Esgin share their management of intermediate uveitis and retinal periphlebitis
in a 40-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis 12 years earlier and had been treated with interferon beta-1a for the previous 7 years.
Neurological signs and Clinical symptoms symptoms suggestive of MS suggestive of other diseases than MS (NMO, connective tissue disorders, sarcoidosis, vasculitis etc.) Normal or swollen optic Severe optic disc edema disc Normal macula and Optic disc hemorrhage peripheral retina Uveitis or retinal Marked periphlebitis
possible Optic Atrophy without h/ o ON or MS Spontaneous improvement Absence of recovery >3 after 2-3 weeks weeks after onset No deterioration after Deterioration withdrawal of steroids Typical and atypical presentations of optic neuritis
demonstrated that idiopathic retinal periphlebitis
was the most common cause in eyes with nontraumatic vitreous hemorrhage in children accounting for 12.6% .
The results of fluorescein angiography revealed widespread retinal vasculitis, periphlebitis
and a few pale choroidal lesions.
Phakic patients with cystoid macular edema, retinal periphlebitis
, and vitreous inflammation.
Uveitic manifestations include hypopyon panuveitis, nonocclusive retinal periphlebitis
, and neuroretinitis or papillopathy .
Venous thrombosis can also occur if the wall is inflamed, as occurs in episodes of periphlebitis
. Inherent ocular predisposing factors include hypermetropia and congenital anomalies of the central retinal vein.
In fact, this represents an early sign of the condition since retinal periphlebitis
(venous inflammation) occurs when the inflammatory mediators increase the vascular permeability and polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration.