peripheral

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peripheral

 [pĕ-rif´er-al]
pertaining to or situated at or near the periphery.
peripheral vascular disease (PVD) any disorder affecting blood flow through the veins and arteries distal to the heart. Disruption of circulation in the peripheral veins can be caused by venous stasis, hypercoagulability, or injury to the vein wall secondary to immobility, orthopedic surgery, aging, and dehydration. Arterial insufficiency in the peripheral vessels is most often due to atherosclerosis, blood clots, trauma, spasms of smooth muscles in the arterial walls, and congenital structural defects in the arteries.

Diminished or interrupted flow of blood through peripheral arteries can eventually lead to ischemic necrosis and gangrene. Sluggish venous flow leads to increased pressure within the vessels, causing varicose veins and sometimes thrombophlebitis. When blood is not moved out of the veins of the lower limbs, it accumulates there and serves as an excellent medium for bacterial growth and contributes to the formation of leg ulcers. Treatment is aimed at improving blood flow by removing or mitigating the cause of impaired circulation.
Assessment of Arterial Circulation. Arterial insufficiency is characterized by two types of pain. The first is a cramping pain in the muscles brought on by exercise and relieved by rest (intermittent claudication). The pain is most often felt in the calves of the legs, but it may also affect the thighs and buttocks. A second type of pain is characteristic of advanced chronic occlusive arterial disease. It occurs when the patient is at rest, usually at night while lying down. The sensation is described as burning and tingling, with numbness of the toes.

Assessment includes noting the color and temperature of the skin in the affected areas and any signs of trophic changes. Epidermoid tissues that are chronically malnourished because of poor blood supply appear shiny, smooth, and thin, with little or no hair on the surface. The nails are thick, with deposits of cornlike material under them. With time, a decreased blood supply produces ischemic changes that cause the skin to assume a purple-black color that is characteristic of cyanosis and gangrene. Additional assessment data include the rate, rhythm, and force of the peripheral pulses.
Assessment of Venous Circulation. Assessment of venous circulation focuses on changes in the hydration status (edema) and pigmentation of the skin. Chronic edema can lead to ulceration. Venous insufficiency also produces a darkened color, dryness, and scaling of the skin in the affected areas. Venography, a radiologic test in which the vein is injected with a radiopaque dye prior to filming, can also demonstrate engorged and tortuous veins.
Patient Teaching. In order to prevent or mitigate the effects of arterial insufficiency or venous stasis, patients must be taught techniques of self-care. Exercises such as the buerger-allen exercises are often prescribed. Additionally, patients need to know how to take care of their feet and legs (see foot care), the reasons for avoiding smoking and keeping warm, and the importance of taking prescribed medications.

pe·riph·er·al

(pĕ-rif'ĕr-ăl), [TA]
1. Relating to or situated at the periphery.
2. Situated nearer the periphery of an organ or part of the body in relation to a specific reference point; opposite of central (centralis).
Synonym(s): peripheralis [TA], eccentric (3)

peripheral

(pə-rĭf′ər-əl)
adj.
1. Related to, located in, or constituting an outer boundary or periphery.
2. Perceived or perceiving near the outer edges of the retina: peripheral vision.
3. Anatomy
a. Of the surface or outer part of a body or organ; external.
b. Of, relating to, or being part of the peripheral nervous system.
4. Of minor relevance or importance.
5. Auxiliary.
n. Computers
An auxiliary device, such as a printer, modem, or storage system, that works in conjunction with a computer.

pe·riph′er·al·ly adv.

anemia

Hematology A condition characterized by ↓ RBCs or Hb in the blood, resulting in ↓ O2 in peripheral tissues Clinical Fatigability, pallor, palpitations, SOB; anemias are divided into various groups based on cause–eg, iron deficiency anemia, megaloblastic anemia–due to ↓ vitamin B12 or folic acid, or aplastic anemia–where RBC precursors in BM are 'wiped out'. See Anemia of chronic disease, Anemia of investigation, Anemia of prematurity, Aplastic anemia, Arctic anemia, Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Cloverleaf anemia, Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia, Dilutional anemia, Dimorphic anemia, Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia, Fanconi anemia, Hemolytic anemia, Idiopathic sideroblastic anemia, Immune anemia, Iron-deficiency anemia, Juvenile pernicious anemia, Macrocytic anemia, Megaloblastic anemia, Microcytic anemia, Myelophthisic anemia, Neutropenic colitis with aplastic anemia, Nonimmune hemolytic anemia, Pseudoanemia, Refractory anemia with excess blasts, Sickle cell anemia, Sideroblastic anemia, Sports anemia.
General groups of anemia
Morphology
Macrocytic
Megaloblastic anemia
  • Vitamin B12deficiency
  • Folic acid deficiency
Microcytic hypochromic
  • Iron-deficiency anemia
  • Hereditary defects
  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Thalassemia
  • Other hemoglobinopathies
Normocytic
  • Acute blood loss
  • Hemolysis
  • BM failure
  • Anemia of chronic disease
  • Renal failure
Etiology
Deficiency
  • Iron
  • Vitamin B12
  • Folic acid
  • Pyridoxine
Central–due to BM failure
  • Anemia of chronic disease
  • Anemia of senescence
  • Malignancy
    • BM replacement by tumor
    • Toxicity due to chemotherapy
    • Primary BM malignancy, eg leukemia
Peripheral
  • Hemorrhage
  • Hemolysis
.

pe·riph·er·al

(pĕr-if'ĕr-ăl) [TA]
1. Relating to or situated at the periphery.
2. Situated nearer the periphery of an organ or part of the body in relation to a specific reference point; opposite of central (centralis).
Synonym(s): eccentric (3) .

peripheral

of or relating to the outside or extreme edge of a structure. For example, the peripheral nervous system is the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole with the exception of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Patient discussion about peripheral

Q. I am interested in finding info on Peripheral neuropathy and its symptoms. I wonder if I have it. I have restless leg syndrome discovered via a sleep clinic. A small tingling area developed in my back about 8 years ago. Nothing was disclosed to me about it and it progressed further up the back. I now wake up some nights with what I describe as left shoulder knot that makes left arm tingle and feel numb. Sometimes also goes down through to the left leg. It makes me feel jumpy and have trouble getting back to sleep. I rub Benyln on shoulder and take Tylenol. I eventually fall back to sleep. I do not have a family Dr. as she closed her practice and I must now visit walkin clinics. A stress test was recently done as I was having chest pain. Dr. thinks it's due to my Acid Reflux. HELP!

A. numbness and tingling can be symptoms of 25 possible cases. how i know? i just typed those symptoms in this symptom checker, and this is what i got:
http://www.healthline.com/symptomsearch?addterm=Tingling

about neuropathy- as i recall (and i could be wrong here), in most cases it's a symptom that something cause. your nervous system usually don't just shut off with no reason.

More discussions about peripheral
References in periodicals archive ?
Engaging the actual extent of urban peripheralization is a necessary step in the specification of geographically uneven development under planetary urbanization.
The drying up of foreign trade further isolated the city and contributed to its peripheralization.
It bears mentioning that the consequences of this peripheralization are not just theoretical.
I contend that hominid adolescents and young adults may have gone through a period of sex-segregated social and physical peripheralization similar to that found in many other primates.
In unconsciously projecting the UN/US model back in time, and focussing on instances that best exemplify it, Anderson reproduces, according to Kelly and Kaplan, 'what was worst about the "new nations" paradigm' of 1950s modernization theory: 'an unexamined evolutionism, a vague sense of necessity and inevitability to nation-states and national community, and a peripheralization of colonial political dynamics' (p22).
In the case of Guben/Gubin we can talk of a 'double peripheralization.' The Berlin-Brandenburg region lies at the margins of consolidating EU-European industrial spaces, both geographically as well as in terms of growth dynamics resulting from such a consolidation.
As Deutsche argues, objective material conditions of "simultaneous deindustrialization and reindustrialization, decentralization and recentralization, and internationalization and peripheralization" are objective material conditions that must be accounted for (1996: 73).
Walker intervenes fruitfully, almost in passing, in a great many historical debates, from the relationships between commercialization and capitalist development and gender relations, to the economic and social peripheralization of the Subei region north of the Yangtze, to the effects of imperialism on peasant standards of living.
"Being Chinese: The peripheralization of traditional identity." In The living tree: The changing meaning of being Chinese today, ed.
This peripheralization of non-western women hastened this group's rejection of the central tenets of mainstream feminist ideology and necessitated the formulation of a perspective on the role and place of black women in the women's movement.
1988b The Political Economy of the West Bank 1967-1987: From Peripheralization to Development.
Much like Richard White's seminal work, The Roots of Dependency (1983), Faiman-Silva examines a wide variety of sociocultural, political, economic, and environmental factors that combined to forge the Choctaws' historical path to peripheralization. Unlike White, she draws on anthropological methods and neomarxist concepts -- the symbiotic, but often skewed, coexistence of indigenous and capitalist modes of production in specific locations -- in order to gauge cultural persistence and resistance to global homogenization.