periorbital cellulitis


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Related to periorbital cellulitis: periorbital edema

preseptal cellulitis

infection involving the superficial tissue layers anterior to the orbital septum.

periorbital cellulitis

Ophthalmology Acute infection of tissue around the eye–eg, retrobulbar fat pads, not generally accompanied by protrusion or limited movement; untreated PC may progress to orbital cellulitis. See Orbital cellulitis.

pre·sep·tal cel·lu·li·tis

(prē-sep'tăl sel'yū-lī'tis)
Infection involving the superficial tissue and periocular layers anterior to the orbital septum.
Synonym(s): periorbital cellulitis.

cellulitis

(sel?yu-lit'is ) [ cellula + -itis, ]
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CELLULITIS
A spreading bacterial infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, usually caused by streptococcal or staphylococcal infections in adults (and occasionally by Haemophilus species in children). It may occur following damage to skin from an insect bite, an excoriation, or other wound. The extremities, esp. the lower legs, are the most common sites. Adjacent soft tissue may be involved. Affected skin becomes inflamed: red, swollen, warm to the touch, and tender. Spread of infection up lymphatic channels may occur. Cellulitis involving the face is called erysipelas. When it affects the lower extremities, cellulitis must be differentiated from stasis dermatitis, which is associated most commonly with bilateral, chronic dependent edema and, occasionally, with deep venous thrombosis. Risk factors for cellulitis include diabetes mellitus, lymphedema, venous stasis or insufficiency, immune suppression, injection drug use, malnutrition, peripheral vascular disease, and previous skin diseases. See: illustration; necrotizing fasciitis

Etiology

Bacteria gain access through breaks in the skin and spread rapidly, overwhelming normal body defenses; lesions between the toes from athlete's foot are common entry sites.

Treatment

For mild cases of cellulitis, oral antibiotics may be effective depending on the causative organism. For severe cases, intravenous penicillinase-resistant penicillins are used; surgical débridement to obtain cultures and to rule out fasciitis is recommended for patients with diabetes.

CAUTION!

Rarely, group A streptococcal cellulitis may be complicated by exfoliative dermatitis or infection of the subcutaneous fat and fascia, causing necrosis (necrotizing fasciitis), a condition popularly ascribed to the action of “flesh-eating bacteria.”

Patient care

Blood cultures should be obtained from patients with cellulitis to assess for sepsis before beginning therapy with antibiotics. The affected body part should be elevated above the level of the heart. Outlining the affected area with a skin marker allows the caregiver to readily determine if inflamed tissues are responding to therapy. Size, shape, color, and temperature of the affected area and surrounding tissues should be documented and any drainage described. Applying warm soaks to the area increases vasodilation, thus decreasing edema and relieving pain. Pain should be treated with prescribed oral analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. Blood sugars, if elevated, should be lowered to normal levels (preferably about 126 mg/dl or less). Patients on prolonged bedrest should be given heparin to prevent deep venous thrombosis as well as stool softeners to prevent constipation. Patients who develop cellulitis are often at risk for recurrence; they should learn general skin hygiene, how to clean cuts, scratches, cracked skin, and abrasions, and the importance of prompt treatment for infections.

dissecting cellulitis of the scalp

An inflammatory pustular disease of the scalp, similar to acne conglobata or hidradenitis suppurativa. It can be treated surgically, with isotretinoin, or with laser therapy. Synonym: perifolliculitis capitis abscedens

eosinophilic cellulitis

A rash marked by firm, swollen, itchy patches that appear suddenly. The patches may be oval or circular, violet or red, and are associated with abnormally high blood eosinophil levels. The cause is unknown.
Synonym: Wells syndrome

orbital cellulitis

Postseptal cellulitis.

pelvic cellulitis

Parametritis.

periorbital cellulitis

Preseptal cellulitis.

postseptal cellulitis

Facial infection invading the orbit. Synonym: orbital cellulitis

preseptal cellulitis

Soft tissue infection limited to the tissues anterior to the orbital septum. Synonym: periorbital cellulitis
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References in periodicals archive ?
This case represents a coinfection of M buteonis, Av gallinarum, and Spasteuri in a fledgling kestrel that caused clinical signs of periorbital cellulitis, conjunctivitis, and sinusitis.
The physician prescribes Augmentin[R] 600 milligrams by mouth twice a day (Schwartz & Wright, 1996; Talan, 1999) for a mild form of periorbital cellulitis. The Augmentin is an antibiotic that covers the organisms that are involved with periorbital cellulitis, which include Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes (Schwartz & Wright, 1996; Talan, 1999).
This is very important to stress, since close follow-up and adherence to treatment plan are essential with periorbital cellulitis that is treated on an outpatient basis (Schwartz & Wright, 1996; Talan, 1999).
Sex and type of treatment Medical Endoscopic Open surgical Infection M F management surgery procedure Periorbital cellulitis 15 6 All 0 0 (n = 21) Orbital cellulitis 4 2 All 0 0 (n = 6) Subperiosteal abscess * 9 2 All 7 5 (n = 12) Orbital abscess 5 0 All 0 5 (n =5) * One of these patients also had a supraorbital abscess.
Family Sex/ age(y) Clinical manifestations Pus cultures 1 A F/33 Periorbital cellulitis MSSA, Ery/clin- R 2 A M/36 Leg cellulitis/abscess None 3 A M/4 Perianal abscess MSSA, Ery/clin- R 4 A F/2 None 5 A F/1 None 6 B F/37 None 7 B M/38 None 8 B M/9 Knee cell ulitis/abscess MSSA, Ery/clin- R 9 B M/4 Finger-pulp infection None 10 B F/3 Lower abdomen cellulitis None 11 B F/3 None PFGE No.
When confronted by the rare case of periorbital cellulitis, I always consider risk factors that may change my management, such as immunization status and asplenia.
In an analogous manner, it can (rarely) extend locally to produce a periorbital cellulitis. In one such case, isolates from the blood and periorbital aspirate of the same patient were identical except for their expression of Opa proteins and their lipo-oligosaccharide phenotype (18).
Variation in phenotypic expression of the Opa outer membrane protein and lipooligosaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C causing periorbital cellulitis and bacteremia.
Periorbital cellulitis is confined to the soft tissues of the eyelid anterior to the orbital septum and tarsal plates.
Periorbital cellulitis. Pediatr Ann 1993; 22:241-6.