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4) demonstrated in a cadaver study that the superficial buccal branches of the facial nerve pass around the inferior nasal margin of the orbicularis oculi muscle and cross over the medial canthal ligament to innervate the procerus, the corrugator supercilii, and the orbicularis oculi muscles in the nasal periorbit in 94% of the specimens.
details the use of buttresses in the reduction and repair of fractures in the craniomaxillofacial region, with a focus on the cranium and face and including the microbuttresses of the orbit and periorbit.
Although the cause is still controversial, support conjunctiva tissue abnormalities or the loss of tensile force that anchors the gland to the periorbit has been proposed as a predisposing condition (MORGAN et al.