The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) receiving HAART for more than 6 months, without change in the dose or medication protocols in the three preceding months; (2) having at least 20 natural teeth; (3) clinically diagnosed periodontal
disease; and (4) volunteering for participation and a signed informed consent.
Conclusions: Self-perceived oral symptoms and periodontal
parameters were worse among naswar dippers.
disease is extremely common global condition and represents a major public health problem for developed and developing countries.1 It is a chronic inflammatory condition induced by dental bio-film buildup on tooth surfaces.2 Obesity is a major health issue with regard to the economics of developed nations.
Results: Approximately 30% of subjects reported at least one periodontal
symptom; specifically, in 2013, 11.1%, 10.3%, 4.5%, and 4.4% reported gingival swelling, gingival bleeding, dental calculus, and tooth mobility, respectively.
(7) Obesity, weight gain, and increased waist circumference may contribute to the development of periodontal
(b) Primary endodontic lesion with secondary periodontal
(25,32) Many such patients exhibit one or more systemic factors predisposing toward periodontal
In the first session, previous medical histories of all subjects were recorded and they went through detailed radiographic and periodontal
Case-control studies from USA, [9-11] Saudi Arabia,  Hungary,  Croatia,  Brazil,  Iran,  and India  reported the association between periodontal
disease and PTB/PLBW.
Una disminucion en el numero de dientes en perros puede ser causado por agenesia (mayormente en pequenas razas braquiocefalicas), pero usualmente la mayor causa de perdida dentaria es a consecuencia de enfermedad periodontal
. Mayormente se reporta la perdida del tercer molar inferior, los primeros premolares superiores e inferiores y los incisivos (Kyllar y Witter, 2005).
Periodontium, is the tissue surrounding and supporting a tooth and periodontal
disease is a general term for a series of pathological alterations of the periodontium.
Multiple cytokines, which have different effects on the expression of OPG and RANKL, are involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal