period effect

period effect

An effect occurring during a clinical trial in which subjects are observed and no treatment is administered.
References in periodicals archive ?
A fixed effect model can also be extended by introducing period dummies to account for the period effect. Eventually, the model becomes a two-way fixed effect model if it incorporates individual and time (period) effects.
There was a difference when comparing the control and the combination of factorial treatments between urea doses for DM and EE, treatment period effect for EE and linear decreasing dose effect for DM (Table 1).
Linear models were used to test carry-over effect, period effect, and treatment effect on perceived dyspnea and VC.
Neither period effect nor carry-over effect was observed in terms of SE (P = .41 and .73, respectively), SOL (P = .50 and .75, respectively), TST (P = .73 and .20, respectively), and WASO (P = .28 and .55, respectively).
However the group said it also cut operating costs by PS6m -7.3 per cent -before full period effect of the i newspaper.
where m(x, t, i) is population i's central rate of death at age x and in year t, [[alpha].sub.x.sup.(i)] is a parameter indicating population i's average mortality level at age x, [k.sub.t.sup.(i)] is the period effect index representing population i's overall level of mortality at time t, and [[beta].sub.x.sup.(i)] is a parameter reflecting the sensitivity of the log central death rate to changes in [k.sub.t.sup.(i)].
There are challenges inherent to the design of crossover trials but it is unlikely that the period effect occurred because the length of time of the surgical procedure was limited to maximum two hours.
The impact of economic cycles is reflected in occupancy rate changes over time and is a period effect (P).
The period effect of case detection of leprosy using the SP model is shown in Table 1.
Analyses did not identify any period effect whereby the association between circumcision status and behaviors differed by study period.
The loss ratio increased 0.5 points due to an increase in the current accident year loss ratio driven by political risk losses which was substantially offset by the favorable period over period effect of net prior year premium development.
The ADG, DMI and FE variables were analyzed as repeated measures over time, using the following model: Yijk = [mu] + Bi + Tj + Eij + Pk + (BP) ik + (TP) jk + Eijk, where [mu] = overall mean; Bi = block effect (i=1 to 7); Tj = treatment effect (j=1 to 3); Eij = residual error A; Pk = experimental period effect (k=1 to 2); (BP) ik = interaction block x trial period; (TP) jk = interaction treatment x trial period, and Eijk = residual error B.