Diabetic hyperglycemia is toxic to the retinal microvasculature, causing pericyte
apoptosis, which in turn disrupts microvascular intracellular trafficking of the adherent cadherin:catenin (e.g., VE-cadherin) components of retinal vascular endothelial cell-cell junctions.
Desmin was used as a marker of pericyte
according to the previous studies (Fujiwara et al., 2010; Armulik et al., 2011; Sa-Pereira et al., 2012).
Although the presence of microaneurysms is the hallmark of NPDR, histopathological observations of diabetic retinas show the presence of pericyte
ghosts, acellular capillaries, and thickening of the capillary basement membrane  marking the mild or early NPDR stage.
Intravitreal injection of ASC in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced chronic diabetic model paired with host vasculature which suggests the possible pericyte
Prieto et al., "Oxidative stress induces loss of pericyte
coverage and vascular instability in PGC-1a-deficient mice," Angiogenesis, vol.
," in Central Nervous System Diseases and Inflammation, T.
And different cell types, such as astrocyte, neuron, pericyte
, endothelium, and so forth, are formed as a communicate network to regulate with each other as well as the cerebral blood flow.
HBVP (a human brain vascular pericyte
cell line), HA (a human astrocyte cell line), and HBMEC (a human brain microvascular endothelial cell line) were purchased from ScienCell Research Laboratories Inc.
Zhang et al., "Mechanisms of modified LDL-Induced pericyte
loss and retinal injury in diabetic retinopathy," Diabetologia, vol.
loss and microaneurysm formation in PDGF-B-deficient mice," Science, vol.
The same study also examined the role of neuroinflammation as it relates to pericyte
damage or loss and found that 16-month-old pericyte-deficient mice showed a significant 2.5-fold increase in the number of activated microglia in the brain and a significant increase in the expression of several inflammatory cytokines--including TNF alpha, interleukin 1-beta and 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1--which have been extensively studied and linked to degeneration of Alzheimer's disease brain .
The tyrosine kinase platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFR-[beta]) on pericytes
regulates postnatal angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, mesangial and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and pericyte
recruitment to capillaries.