The intact central cypselae suffered a slight reduction in the germination timing when exposed to the peripheral pericarps
. However, the excised seeds were less responsive to that chemical effect.
Based on the cut-off values indicating the antibacterial activity of plant extracts proposed by Kuete , many of the tested extracts, especially those from Tristemma hirtum leaves (THL), Raphia hookeri pericarps
(RHP), and Cucurbita pepo pericarps
(CPP) had weak (>512 [micro]g/mL) to no activity (MIC > 2048 [micro]g/mL) against the tested bacteria (Table 2).
GME paste was obtained from mangosteen pericarp
extraction using the maceration method.
Sichuan pepper, pericarp
of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.
The lead concentration in different parts respective order from high to low in roots, stems and leave, pericarps
, flowers and seeds, in addition found on harvesting 105 days had the highest lead accumulation in whole plants.
Several studies reported beneficial effects of the use of [alpha]-mangostin, the most abundant nonpolar constituent in the pericarp
of the mangosteen , while some studies showed contradictory results.
Acorns and hickory nuts are minus pericarp
Food type Caloric value (Kcal x g dry [wt.sup.-1] [+ or -] sd) Carya glabra 7.97 [+ or -] 0.33 Comus florida 5.36 [+ or -] 0.12 Quercus velutina 5.21 [+ or -] 0.13 Quercus nigra 5.20 [+ or -] 0.17 Quercus alba 3.91 [+ or -] 0.03 (a) Caloric value from Burns and Veirs 1973, Gibbes and Barrett 2011
To obtain the extracts, the pericarp
fruits dried and powdered were treated with solvents in growing polarity gradient since hexane until ethyl-acetate and ethanol, at room temperature, using the soxhlet equipment for 24 h in each extraction.
Four to 12 physiologically mature seeds per RIL were visually phenotyped for hypodermal and phytomelanin pigments in the pericarp
by dissecting through successive pericarp
cell layers (epidermis, hypodermis, and phytomelanin) as described by Leon et al.
The net dry pulp and coat (pericarp
: seed biomass ratio, and water content of the fruit were compared among morphotypes after averaging the two values from each clone.
(10-60 [micro]L) or placentas (5-15 [micro]L) extracts were mixed with 1mL 0.4 mM DpPH dilution in Tris buffer (100 mM, pH 7.4), vigorously shaken and allowed to reach a steady state at room temperature.
Structures of jegosapogenin and desacyljegosaponin obtained from pericarps
of Styrax japonica SIEB et ZUCC.