A variety of rare complications such as perforation of the left brachiocephalic vein and massive hemothorax, chylothorax, internal mammary artery malposition of catheter, and inadvertent placement of a CVC in the left pericardiophrenic
vein have been reported previously [5-8].
In IPS, the systemic blood supply can be from the descending aorta (72%), abdominal aorta and splenic artery (21%), intercostal artery (3.7%) or rarely the subclavian, internal mammary and pericardiophrenic
 among 100 nonthymomatous patients with MG, ectopic thymic foci were identified in 71% of patients with the highest incidence in perithymic fat (37%) and at the site of the aortopulmonary window (33%), in the cervical region (10%), in the right and left pericardiophrenic
fat (7% each), and in the aortocaval groove (4%).
reported a novel method of localization of the phrenic nerve with cardiac computed tomography and found that the imaged pericardiophrenic
artery could reliably identify the approximate location of the RPN, suggesting that a phrenic nerve location within 10 mm of the RSPV poses a higher risk of PNI using balloon ablation devices.
Therefore, vascularization of both tissues is also different, where pericardiophrenic
branches of the internal mammary artery supply blood for pericardial adipose tissue, while EAT is vascularized by coronary arteries .
Sometimes left-sided PAPVR drains via a persistent left SVC into the coronary sinus, a pericardiophrenic
vein or the hemiazygos vein [1,7].
(2) Malposition usually occurs within the major tributaries of the superior vena cava, including subclavian, internal thoracic, pericardiophrenic
, and superior intercostal veins.
(3) The systemic arterial supply is via the descending thoracic aorta (72%); abdominal aorta, celiac axis, or splenic artery (21%); intercostal artery (3.7%); and rarely via the subclavian, internal thoracic, and pericardiophrenic
The stimulation lead is placed in the pericardiophrenic
Beyond coronary sinus angiography: the value of coronary arteriography and identification of the pericardiophrenic
vein during left ventricular lead placement.
Subsequent computed tomography (CT) revealed massive mediastinal and pericardiophrenic
adenopathy, persistent pericardial effusion, compression of the main and left pulmonary arteries, and bilateral pleural effusions (Figures 1 and 2).
(4,6) Branches of the abdominal aorta, intercostals, subclavian, innominate, internal thoracic, pericardiophrenic
, gastric, celiac, suprarenal, and pulmonary arteries have also been documented.