We were able to predict the non-linear transition from innocuous to painful perception with high accuracy based on activation in regions such as the periaqueductal gray
that have previously been implicated in central modulation of pain.
2001) demonstrated that pneumatic stimulation of the anal canal revealed activation in somatosensory cortex, insula, inferior parietal lobe, cingulate gyrus, amygdala and periaqueductal gray matter, similar to vaginal stimulation (6).
High densities of opioid receptors are located in all areas of the central nervous system known to be involved in integrating information about pain such as cingulate cortex, periaqueductal gray matter and reticular formation (8) and, these major structures of the medial pain system have a very high concentration of opioid receptors (5).
These structures are connected with the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray
matter, and the limbic regions of the frontal and temporal lobes.
However, it receives a strong excitatory projection from the periaqueductal gray , which has been exploited in about a thousand patients so far to alleviate otherwise refractory pain by DBS .
Chronic spinal nerve ligation induces changes in response characteristics of nociceptive spinal dorsal horn neurons and in their descending regulation originating in the periaqueductal gray in the rat.
2] receptors of the periaqueductal gray
and inferior colliculus induces fear-like behaviors.
Three areas in the brain stem and diencephalon are specifically implicated in the control of micturition: the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum, the periaqueductal gray
matter, and the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
Subcortical regulation: periaqueductal gray
42 Emotional and Behavioral Significance of the Pain Signal and the Role of the Midbrain Periaqueductal Gray
The effect was largest in the brain regions called the ventral striatum, amygdala, midline thalamus, and periaqueductal gray
- areas that are also known to be involved in physical pain.
In a recent study Murphy found that previously reported differences in morphine's ability to block pain in male versus female rats are most likely due to sex differences in mu-opioid receptor expression in a region of the brain called the periaqueductal gray