responses and cementum regeneration with amalgam, SuperEBA, and MTA as root-end filling materials.
A size #25 K-file was introduced into the root canal to irritate the periapical tissue
and to create some bleeding into the root canal.
Clinically after the calcium silicate based sealer is applied in the root canal system during canal obturation, its surface properties can be affected by the periapical tissue
Changes of the periapical tissue
manifest radiographically in the stage of chronic ulcerative pulpitis.
X-ray examination was performed before surgery to explore periapical tissue
and root conditions.
Incorrect use of devitalizing agents is related to secondary pain, the drug filtering into the marginal periodontium, and irritation and inflammation of the periapical tissue
In addition to the biological and immunological factors, the followings can be effective in causing pain: Chemical mediators, changes in local adaptation of periapical tissue
, changes in cyclic nucleotides, immunological phenomena and psychosomatic factors .
intermedia), have been implicated in human dental pulp inflammation and periapical diseases, which are associated with rapid pulp degeneration, necrosis, and destruction of periapical tissue
. P intermedia has been shown previously to play a key role in periapical tooth disease and in the maxillofacial abscess formation via the expression of inflammatory cytokines .
 who found that pressure equalization (i.e., open chamber) resulted in significantly more extrusion than the sealed vial (i.e., closed chamber), regardless of the vial content due to the absence of resistance offered by periapical tissue
against extrusion of irrigant and debris.
Microbiological examination of roots canal and periapical tissue
of human teeth.
Chow, The periapical tissue
reaction to a calcium phosphate cement in the teeth of monkeys, J.
Cements used for root end seal during endodontic microsurgery must be biocompatible with periapical tissue
to favour healing and treatment success (1, 2).