performance anxiety


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anxiety

 [ang-zi´ĭ-te]
a multidimensional emotional state manifested as a somatic, experiential, and interpersonal phenomenon; a feeling of uneasiness, apprehension, or dread. These feelings may be accompanied by symptoms such as breathlessness, a choking sensation, palpitations, restlessness, muscular tension, tightness in the chest, giddiness, trembling, and flushing, which are produced by the action of the autonomic nervous system, especially the sympathetic part of it.

Anxiety may be rational, such as the anxiety about doing well in a new job, about one's own or someone else's illness, about passing an examination, or about moving to a new community. People also feel realistic anxiety about world dangers, such as the possibility of war, and about social and economic changes that may affect their livelihood or way of living. Most persons find healthy ways to deal with their normal quota of anxiety.
Nursing Diagnosis. Anxiety was accepted as a nursing diagnosis by the North America Nursing Diagnosis Association and defined as “a vague, uneasy feeling of discomfort or dread, accompanied by an autonomic response (the source often nonspecific or unknown to the individual); a feeling of apprehension caused by anticipation of danger.” It is an alerting signal that warns of apprehension caused by anticipation of danger and enables the individual to take measures to deal with the threat. It is differentiated from fear in that the anxious person cannot identify the threat, whereas the fearful person recognizes the source of fear.

Factors that can precipitate an attack of anxiety include any pathophysiological event that interferes with satisfaction of the basic human physiological needs. Situational factors include actual or perceived threat to self-concept, loss of significant others, threat to biological integrity, change in environment, change in socioeconomic status, and transmission of another person's anxiety to the individual. Other etiologic factors are associated with a threat to completion of developmental tasks at various life stages, for example, a threat to an adolescent in the completion of developmental tasks associated with sexual development, peer relationships, and independence.

Interventions. Measures to assist the individuals suffering from anxiety are aimed at helping them recognize their anxiety and their usual means of coping with it, and providing alternate, more healthful coping mechanisms that give a sense of physiological and psychological comfort.
anxiety disorders a group of mental disorders in which anxiety is the most prominent disturbance or in which anxiety is experienced if the patient attempts to control the symptoms. Everyone occasionally experiences anxiety as a normal response to a dangerous or unusual situation. In an anxiety disorder, the person feels the same emotion without any apparent reason and cannot identify the source of the threat that produces the anxiety, which actually has its origin in unconscious fears or conflicts.

People with anxiety disorders experience both the subjective emotion and various physical manifestations resulting from muscular tension and autonomic nervous system activity. This can produce a variety of symptoms, including sweating, dizziness, shortness of breath, insomnia, loss of appetite, and palpitations. The source of the anxiety lies in unconscious fears, unresolved conflicts, forbidden impulses, or threatening memories. Symptoms are often triggered by an apparently harmless stimulus that the patient unconsciously links with a deeply buried, anxiety-producing experience. Chronic anxiety can lead to various somatic alterations. The onset of anxiety may be gradual or sudden. Some persons experience incapacitating acute anxiety (as in panic disorder) while others manifest their anxiety through avoidant behavior patterns (phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder). Anxiety disorders include: panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, specific phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and substance-induced anxiety disorder.
free-floating anxiety severe, generalized anxiety having no apparent connection to any specific object, situation, or idea.
performance anxiety a social phobia characterized by extreme anxiety and episodes of panic when performance, particularly public performance, is required.
anxiety reaction a reaction characterized by abnormal apprehension or uneasiness; see also anxiety disorders.
separation anxiety apprehension due to removal of significant persons or familiar surroundings, common in infants 12 to 24 months old; see also separation anxiety disorder.
situational anxiety that occurring spcifically in relation to a situation or object.

performance anxiety

Psychology
A physiologic “fight-or-flight” reaction that occurs in an anxious person carrying out an activity in the public eye (e.g., those in entertainment, public speakers and others)

Clinical findings
Tachycardia, tachypnoea, hypertension, increased muscle tone.

Sexology
Functional impotence due to personal concerns about poor sexual performance.

performance anxiety

Performing anxiety, stage fright Psychology A 'flight-or-fight' reaction in an anxious person carrying out an activity in public–eg, entertaining, public speaking–or in front of others, as in sexual activity, for fear of poor performance Clinical Tachycardia, ↑ BP, ↑ respiration, ↑ muscle tone. See Anticipatory anxiety, Flight-or-fight response, Performing arts medicine.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nevertheless, as it occurred in the previous two types of performance anxiety associated with FLA, no statistically significant gender differences were observed in levels of FLA.
Below Tishler and Walfish share five tips to cope with performance anxiety solo or as a couple.
Table 1 depicts that there was a statistically significant association between employment status and type of employment with different levels of erectile performance anxiety (P = 0.009 and 0.006 respectively).
Performance anxiety and musical level of undergraduate students in exam situations: the role of gender and musical instrument.
The motivational climates created by coaches have been found to predict athlete emotional, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes (including sport performance anxiety) [18].
Few researchers, [16,23] have considered writing performance anxiety in second language learning.
Some of the most commonly used drugs in music performance are beta-blockers (Brantigan, Brantigan, & Joseph, 1982; Fishbein, Middlestadt, Ottati, Straus, & Ellis, 1988; Kenny, Driscoll, & Ackermann, 2012; Patston, 2010), which are used by musicians to help reduce music performance anxiety (MPA).
Stating that Kerrigan looked like a 'lonely forlorn young fellow', Selvey said that the player might instead have been affected by performance anxiety or stage fright as he found himself in a situation in which various elements, which on their own may have had minimal effect, compounded to a humiliating degree.
"Psychotropics can be prescribed for behavioral complications caused by dementia, and antihypertensive beta blockers, like propranolol, may be used to treat performance anxiety."
In my 15 years of choral teaching and personal performance experience, I have become keenly aware that Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) can inhibit a singer from performing to the best of her ability.

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