Number of incompetent PVs Perforating vein Number (Percent) Medial thigh (Hunter's) perforating veins 104 (8.25%) Anterior thigh perforating veins 26 (2.06%) Posterior thigh perforating veins 78 (6.20%) Medial knee (Boyd's) perforating veins 188 (14.92%) Popliteal fossa perforating veins 89 (7.06%) Paratibial (Sherman) perforating veins 116 (9.20%) Posterior tibial (Cockett's) perforating 325 (25.80%) veins Anterior leg perforating veins 35 (2.77%) Lateral leg perforating veins 34 (2.70%) Posterior leg (medial and lateral 265 (21.03%) gastrocnemius, intergemellar) perforating veins Total 1260 (100%) Table 2.
Although there are 150 perforating veins (PVs) in the lower extremity (LE), only a few of them are clinically significant .
Most incompetent calf perforating veins are found in association with superficial venous reflux.
The relationship between the number, competence, and diameter of medial calf perforating veins and the clinical status in healthy subjects and patients with lower-limb venous disease.
Surgical correction of main stem reflux in the superficial venous system: does it improve the blood flow of incompetent perforating veins? World J Surg 2003; 27: 793-6.
The DM exam in the postoperative period showed the presence of insufficient perforating veins in the two limbs (4.17%) that did not show an improvement in VRT.
In the other patient in which the VRT improved without attaining 20 seconds and in 2 patients in which the PPG did not show an improvement in VRT, DM found insufficient perforating veins in the leg, which were probably not ligated during surgery.
Nicolaides, "In situ hemodynamics of perforating veins in chronic venous insufficiency," Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol.
Secondary varicose veins are caused by valvular damage after Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and recanalisation that gives rise to incompetent deep and perforating veins
 The following venous segments were insonated in all patients: common and superficial femoral veins, popliteal vein, sapheno-femoral junction, long saphenous vein and major tributaries, sapheno-popliteal junction, short saphenous vein, thigh and calf perforating veins.
"Pathologic" perforating veins includes those with an outward flow of duration of 500 ms with a diameter of 3.5 mm and a location beneath healed or open venous ulcers (CEAP Class C5-C6).
The goal was to abolish venous refluxes in the superficial and perforating veins as detected and marked by duplex scan to reduce venous hypertension in the affected area or the entire leg.