Motor nerve conduction studies were performed for median and ulnar nerve on both sides using standard techniques of supramaximal percutaneous stimulation
with a constant current stimulator and surface recording electrode for both nerves of each subject.
Szeles, "Modulation of muscle tone and sympathovagal balance in cervical dystonia using percutaneous stimulation
of the auricular vagus nerve," Artificial Organs, vol.
He was 27 yr postinjury and was implanted with a 16-channel percutaneous stimulation
system with intramuscular electrodes to facilitate standing and walking.
The companion DVD contains videos of single-injection and continuous nerve blocks, and examples of the anatomical responses gained from percutaneous stimulation
of the nerves.
In a study sponsored by the company, a percutaneous stimulation
test-using a stimulating electrode placed through the perineum to the pudendal nerve--was performed in seven women who had refractory overactive bladder.
In future studies, percutaneous stimulation
, measurement of EMG levels across muscles, and an experimental design that simplifies force analysis could provide insight into the mechanisms responsible.
Fully implanted pacemaker-like systems, on the other hand, offer numerous advantages over surface and percutaneous stimulation
for long-term clinical use, including improved convenience, cosmesis, reliability, and repeatability .