This study showed that morphological damages, differences in the elemental components of treated and untreated bacteria and the lipid and protein leaked were due to or could be associated with the inhibition of significant steps in peptidoglycan
synthesis, binding of the antimicrobial agents to the membrane surfaces and subsequent disintegration of the cell membranes.
These genes express to synthesise the abnormal precursor of peptidoglycan
to which vancomycin binds with very low affinity.
Small intestine bacterial overgrowth--increased levels of commensal flora in a highly absorptive mucosal region--is associated with over 40 major illnesses and provides a major burden of LPS, peptidoglycans
, and cytokines.
The basic condition for the metallic nanoparticle to go through the polymer matrix of the thin peptidoglycan
layer is [d.sub.nano] < [d.sub.layer].
Normark, "beta-Lactamase induction in gram-negative bacteria is intimately linked to peptidoglycan
recycling," Microbial Drug Resistance, vol.
NaCl stress disrupts the process of glycine addition during peptidoglycan
assembly resulting in shorter interpeptide bridges and fewer cross-linkages between the muropeptide layers and a reduction in the synthesis of CW-associated proteins .
Horie et al., "An essential role for NOD1 in host recognition of bacterial peptidoglycan
containing diaminopimelic acid," Nature Immunology, vol.
Steiner, "A peptidoglycan
recognition protein in innate immunity conserved from insects to humans," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
Lysozyme catalyzes the [beta]1-4 bonds between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine in the peptidoglycan
, resulting in bacterial death.
Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is Gram-positive bacteria capable of causing sepsis condition (septicemia) due to the presence of some components in cell wall as peptidoglycan
and lipoteichoic acid.
aureus were established and then exposed to different bacteriophage-derived proteins that catalyze degradation of the key biofilm extracellular polymers peptidoglycan
NOD1 is a prototypical NLR that detects small peptides (notably [gamma]-D-glutamyl meso-diaminopimelic acid (iE-DAP) and related peptides) derived from peptidoglycan
(PGN), a major component of the bacterial cell wall.