pentoxifylline


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Related to pentoxifylline: Trental

pentoxifylline

 [pen″tok-sif´ah-lin]
a xanthine derivative that reduces blood viscosity; used for the symptomatic relief of intermittent claudication in peripheral vascular disease.

pentoxifylline

Apo-Pentoxiphylline, Neotren (UK), Pentoxil, Pentoxiphylline (CA), Pentoxiphylline SR (CA), Trental

Pharmacologic class: Hemorrheologic, xanthine derivative

Therapeutic class: Hematologic agent

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Unknown. Thought to enhance blood flow to the circulatory system by increasing vasoconstriction and oxygen concentrations.

Availability

Tablets (controlled-release, extended-release): 400 mg

Indications and dosages

Intermittent claudication

Adults: 400 mg t.i.d. If adverse reactions occur, decrease to 400 mg b.i.d.

Dosage adjustment

• Renal impairment

Off-label uses

• Diabetic angiopathies and neuropathies

• Transient ischemic attacks

• Severe idiopathic recurrent aphthous stomatitis

• Raynaud's phenomenon

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug or methylxanthines (such as caffeine, theophylline, theobromine)

• Recent cerebral or retinal hemorrhage

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• patients at risk for bleeding

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children (safety not established).

Administration

• Give with meals to minimize GI distress.

• Make sure patient swallows tablets whole without crushing, breaking, or chewing.

Adverse reactions

CNS: agitation, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, insomnia, nervousness, tremor, anxiety, confusion, malaise

CV: angina, edema, hypotension, arrhythmias

EENT: blurred vision, epistaxis, laryngitis, nasal congestion, sore throat

GI: nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, belching, bloating, dyspepsia, flatus, cholecystitis, dry mouth, excessive salivation, anorexia

Hematologic: leukopenia

Respiratory: dyspnea

Skin: rash, urticaria, pruritus, brittle fingernails, flushing, angioedema

Other: bad taste, weight changes, thirst, flulike symptoms, lymphadenopathy

Interactions

Drug-drug. Anticoagulants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): increased risk of bleeding Antihypertensives: additive hypotension

Theobromide, theophylline: increased risk of theophylline toxicity

Drug-herbs. Anise, arnica, asafetida, chamomile, clove, dong quai, fenugreek, feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, licorice: increased risk of bleeding

Drug-behaviors. Smoking: decreased pentoxifylline efficacy

Patient monitoring

• Monitor vital signs and cardiovascular status. Watch for arrhythmias, angina, edema, and hypotension.

• Frequently monitor prothrombin time and International Normalized Ratio in patients receiving warfarin concurrently.

• Assess theophylline level in patients receiving theophylline-containing drugs concurrently.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to take with meals and to swallow tablets whole without crushing, breaking, or chewing.

Inform patient that drug can cause serious adverse effects. Instruct him to immediately report chest pain, swelling, and flulike symptoms.

• Tell patient smoking may make drug less effective and that many over-the-counter preparations (including aspirin, NSAIDs, and herbs) increase risk of bleeding.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.

pentoxifylline

(pĕn′tŏk-sĭf′ə-lēn′, -lĭn, pĕn-tŏk′sə-fĭl′ēn′, -ĭn)
n.
A drug, C13H18N4O3, that decreases blood viscosity and improves blood flow, used to treat intermittent claudication.

pentoxifylline

Trental® Vascular disease An agent used to prevent blood clots, especially in the elderly; it may also slow weight loss in CA ; may ↓ TNF Adverse effects Headache, tremor, dizziness, indigestion, N&V. See AIDS.
References in periodicals archive ?
Bozoket al., "Effects ofIloprost and pentoxifylline on renal ischemia-reperfusion in rabbit model," European Journal ofMedical Research, vol.
Pentoxifylline therapy: a new adjuvant in treatment of oral submucous fibrosis.
A systematic review of 11 trials (N=841) found that pentoxifylline accelerated healing rates vs placebo (NNT=4; 95% CI, 3-6); the authors recommended its use in conjunction with compression therapy when possible.
Pentoxifylline also acts as an anti-oxidant agent (17) and can protect the fresh sperm plasma membrane (33).
Systemic corticosteroids in progressively decreasing dosage, combined with hydroxychloroquine, colchicine and pentoxifylline led to significant clinical improvement after one and a half year.
Combined treatment by pentoxifylline and tocopherol for recipient women with a thin endometrium enrolled in an oocyte donation programme.
The treatments were performed 1 h prior to carrageenan injection, as follows: indomethacin was administered orally (po) and pentoxifylline intraperitoneally (ip) as detailed in Tables 1 and 2.
We conducted an animal experiment to assess the effect of adding pentoxifylline to amikacin to prevent amikacin-induced ototoxicity.
Therefore, vasoactive agents, such as Ginkgo biloba extract, dextran, and pentoxifylline, have been used with an aim to gain more blood flow in the cochlea [10, 11].
The patient was treated with a single dose of 500 cc intravenous dextran-40 and 200 mg intravenous pentoxifylline. In etiologic studies, Doppler ultrasonography revealed an atherosclerotic stenosis in the right and left main carotid arteries and a calcified plaque causing luminal narrowing in the left internal carotid artery.
In our patient, we started a vasodilator therapy with pentoxifylline (3 x 400 mg/day) and tadalafil (5 mg/day).