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Related to pentoxifylline: Trental


a xanthine derivative that reduces blood viscosity; used for the symptomatic relief of intermittent claudication in peripheral vascular disease.


Apo-Pentoxiphylline, Neotren (UK), Pentoxil, Pentoxiphylline (CA), Pentoxiphylline SR (CA), Trental

Pharmacologic class: Hemorrheologic, xanthine derivative

Therapeutic class: Hematologic agent

Pregnancy risk category C


Unknown. Thought to enhance blood flow to the circulatory system by increasing vasoconstriction and oxygen concentrations.


Tablets (controlled-release, extended-release): 400 mg

Indications and dosages

Intermittent claudication

Adults: 400 mg t.i.d. If adverse reactions occur, decrease to 400 mg b.i.d.

Dosage adjustment

• Renal impairment

Off-label uses

• Diabetic angiopathies and neuropathies
• Transient ischemic attacks
• Severe idiopathic recurrent aphthous stomatitis
• Raynaud's phenomenon


• Hypersensitivity to drug or methylxanthines (such as caffeine, theophylline, theobromine)
• Recent cerebral or retinal hemorrhage


Use cautiously in:
• patients at risk for bleeding
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients
• children (safety not established).


• Give with meals to minimize GI distress.
• Make sure patient swallows tablets whole without crushing, breaking, or chewing.

Adverse reactions

CNS: agitation, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, insomnia, nervousness, tremor, anxiety, confusion, malaise

CV: angina, edema, hypotension, arrhythmias

EENT: blurred vision, epistaxis, laryngitis, nasal congestion, sore throat

GI: nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, belching, bloating, dyspepsia, flatus, cholecystitis, dry mouth, excessive salivation, anorexia

Hematologic: leukopenia

Respiratory: dyspnea

Skin: rash, urticaria, pruritus, brittle fingernails, flushing, angioedema

Other: bad taste, weight changes, thirst, flulike symptoms, lymphadenopathy


Drug-drug.Anticoagulants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): increased risk of bleeding Antihypertensives: additive hypotension

Theobromide, theophylline: increased risk of theophylline toxicity

Drug-herbs.Anise, arnica, asafetida, chamomile, clove, dong quai, fenugreek, feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, licorice: increased risk of bleeding

Drug-behaviors.Smoking: decreased pentoxifylline efficacy

Patient monitoring

• Monitor vital signs and cardiovascular status. Watch for arrhythmias, angina, edema, and hypotension.
• Frequently monitor prothrombin time and International Normalized Ratio in patients receiving warfarin concurrently.
• Assess theophylline level in patients receiving theophylline-containing drugs concurrently.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to take with meals and to swallow tablets whole without crushing, breaking, or chewing.

Inform patient that drug can cause serious adverse effects. Instruct him to immediately report chest pain, swelling, and flulike symptoms.
• Tell patient smoking may make drug less effective and that many over-the-counter preparations (including aspirin, NSAIDs, and herbs) increase risk of bleeding.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.


/pen·tox·i·fyl·line/ (pen″tok-sif´ah-lin) a xanthine derivative that reduces blood viscosity; used for the symptomatic relief of intermittent claudication.


(pĕn′tŏk-sĭf′ə-lēn′, -lĭn, pĕn-tŏk′sə-fĭl′ēn′, -ĭn)
A drug, C13H18N4O3, that decreases blood viscosity and improves blood flow, used to treat intermittent claudication.


a drug that lowers blood viscosity by making red blood cells even more flexible.
indications It is prescribed for the treatment of intermittent claudication associated with chronic occlusive arterial limb disease but should not be used as a replacement for other types of medications used for peripheral vascular disease because its efficacy is marginal. There are several unlabeled uses for the drug for which decreased blood viscosity could be advantageous, including cerebrovascular disease and diabetic neuropathy.
contraindications It should not be administered to patients who are allergic to xanthines or who have had recent episodes of bleeding, especially in the brain or retina, and should be used with caution if renal impairment is present.
adverse effects Among the most serious adverse effects are nausea, dyspepsia, dizziness, angina, arrhythmia, and hypotension.


Trental® Vascular disease An agent used to prevent blood clots, especially in the elderly; it may also slow weight loss in CA ; may ↓ TNF Adverse effects Headache, tremor, dizziness, indigestion, N&V. See AIDS.

pentoxifylline (pen´toksif´əlēn´),

n brand name: Trental;
drug class: hemorrheologic agent;
action: decreased blood viscosity, stimulates prostacyclin formation, increases blood flow by increasing flexibility of red blood cells (RBCs), decreased RBC hyperaggregation, reduces platelet aggregation, decreases fibrinogen concentration;
uses: intermittent claudication related to chronic occlusive vascular disease.


a methylxanthine derivative that causes an increase in microvascular blood flow and has an immunomodulating effect by suppression of proinflammatory cytokines. Used in the treatment of some canine skin diseases, especially vasculitis and dermatomyositis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Patients were randomly assigned to four groups, each receiving two treatments: prednisolone and pentoxifylline, prednisolone and placebo, pentoxifylline and placebo, or both placebo.
In our study, in vitro administration of L-carnitin and pentoxifylline to extracted testicular sperm samples led to increased sperm motility and LDH-[C.
Ciprofloxacin, like pentoxifylline, is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, a cAMP activator and hence a potent inhibitor of TNF production.
Drugs with insufficient evidence include pentoxifylline, antiplatelet agents (aspirin), vasodilators, including buflomedil, L-arginine, prostaglandins, ketanserin and other agents.
Interleukin-6 as a central mediator of cardiovascular risk associated with chronic inflammation, smoking, diabetes, and visceral obesity: down-regulation with essential fatty acids, ethanol and pentoxifylline.
Interventions for Anorexia Recommended for Practice * Corticosteroids --Dexamethasone --Methylprednisolone --Prednisolone * Progestins --Medroxyprogesterone --Megestrol acetate Likely to Be Effective * Dietary counseling Effectiveness Not Established * Cyproheptadine * Eicosapentaenoic acid * Erythropoietin * Ghrelin * Metoclopramide * Oral branched-chain amino acids * Pentoxifylline * Thalidomide Effectiveness Unlikely * Cannabinoids * Hydrazine sulfate * Melatonin Note.
The effects of pentoxifylline on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fever, plasma interleukin-6 (IL6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the rat.
Drugs that are not capable of affecting bleomycin pneumonitis include enoxaparin, pentoxifylline and linomide (2).
The effect of the plant extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced septic shock and vascular permeability on the dorsal part of mice skin, measured by the number of deaths and the serum levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases after intraperitoneal injection of LPS (1 [micro]gkg) into D-galactosamine-primed mice and the local accumulation of Evan's blue after subcutaneous injection of LPS respectively, showed that pre-treatment with about 10-80 mg/kg of the extract inhibited the septic shock syndrome in mice in a dose dependent manner, with an 80 mg/kg dose found to be as effective as 100 mg/kg of the drug pentoxifylline.
Pentoxifylline was mostly effective on soft-tissue changes and proptosis.
We obtained LPS (derived from Escherichia coli, serotype 055:B5), TNF-[alpha] inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX), and macrophage cytotoxic agent Gd[Cl.