Induction of oxidative DNA damage by arsenite and its trivalent and pentavalent
methylated metabolites in cultured human cells and isolated DNA.
Regarding side effects it is estimated that more than 200000 patients are treated with pentavalent
antimony in the past 80 years16 however there are just two reports of death following drug administration which is not clear whether it was because of the drug side effects or the process of the disease.24 It means that these components are relatively safe agents.
Report of a WHO ad hoc expert panel to review reports of serious AEFI following administration of pentavalent
and other vaccines-Sri Lanka, 23 December 2008.
Briefly, the metabolic process is carried out in two processes: a) the reactions of reduction that convert the pentavalent
species to trivalency, and b) reactions of oxidative methylations where iAs is converted to mono-, di-, and trimethyl arsenic forms (MAs, DMAs, and TMAsO, respectively).
The reported cure rate for the patients treated with meglumine antimoniate alone was 36% while those who received a combined therapy was 74%.17 In Peru a randomized clinical trial with combined therapy of pentavalent
antimony and imiquimod was done which showed 75% cure rate.18 In the presented work we treated CL patients with the combined therapy of antimonials and co- trimoxazole which showed the higher cure rate of 88.9%.
Azad mentioned that year 2012 has been declared the year of intensification of routine immunization programme and recently the Mission Steering Group of NRHM has endorsed the introduction of pentavalent
vaccine in six more states viz.
These include BCG vaccine, Hepatitis B vaccine, Pentavalent
vaccine or 5-in-1 vaccine, Hib (Haemophilus influenza type) vaccine, DTP (Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis) vaccine, Oral polio virus vaccine, and Pneumococcal vaccines for senior citizens.
Keeping in view four indicators low pentavalent
vaccine coverage, outbreak of diphtheria and increased dropout rate and difference in birth cohort.
"There was an increase in pentavalent
vaccine uptake by 18.1 per cent from 1 million in 2017 to 1.2 million in 2018."
It includes BCG and polio at birth, pentavalent
and pneumococcal vaccine at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age, Rota virus vaccine at 6 and 10 weeks and 2 doses of measles at 9 months and 15 months of age.