penicillin V


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to penicillin V: penicillin V potassium, amoxicillin

penicillin

 [pen″ĭ-sil´in]
any of a large group of natural or semisynthetic antibacterial antibiotics derived directly or indirectly from strains of fungi of the genus Penicillium and other soil-inhabiting fungi grown on special culture media. Penicillins exert a bacteriocidal as well as a bacteriostatic effect on susceptible bacteria by interfering with the final stages of the synthesis of peptidoglycan, a substance in the bacterial cell wall. Despite their relatively low toxicity for the host, they are active against many bacteria, especially gram-positive pathogens (streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci); clostridia; certain gram-negative forms (gonococci and meningococci); certain spirochetes (Treponema pallidum and T. pertenue); and certain fungi. Certain strains of some target species, for example staphylococci, secrete the enzyme penicillinase, which inactivates penicillin and confers resistance to the antibiotic. Some of the newer penicillins, such as methicillin, are more effective against penicillinase-producing organisms. A class of extended-spectrum penicillins includes piperacillin and mezlocillin.

Penicillin is administered intramuscularly, orally, in liquid or tablet form, and topically in ointments. Oral administration requires larger doses of the drug because absorption is incomplete. Allergic reactions occur in some persons. The reaction may be slight—a stinging or burning sensation at the site of injection—or it can be more serious—severe dermatitis or even anaphylactic shock, which may be fatal.
penicillin G the most widely used penicillin, used principally in the treatment of infections due to gram-positive organisms, gram-negative cocci, Treponema pallidum and Actinomyces israelii. The usual forms are salts such as penicillin benzathine, potassium, procaine, or sodium. Called also benzylpenicillin.
penicillin V a biosynthetically or semisynthetically produced antibiotic similar to penicillin g, used orally in the form of the benzathine or potassium salt for mild to moderately severe infections due to susceptible gram-positive bacteria.

pen·i·cil·lin V

a penicillin derivative containing a phenoxyacetyl group; obtained from Penicillium chrysogenum Q 176; a crystalline nonhydroscopic acid, stable even in high humidity; it resists destruction by gastric juice; the potassium salt is used orally; precursor for the synthesis of analogue of cephalosporin C.

penicillin V

n.
A semisynthetic penicillin that is stable even in high humidity, resists destruction by gastric juice, and is therefore effective when taken orally.

pen·i·cil·lin V

(pen'i-silin)
Penicillin derivative that resists destruction by gastric juice; potassium salt is used orally.
References in periodicals archive ?
Effect of temperature and fermentation time on penicillin V production Optimum temperature and fermentation time for the penicillin V production is 26 [degrees]C and six days, respectively.
Cellulase enzyme convert the cellulose to glucose, easy uptake of glucose by Penicillium chrysogenum and results in elevated yield of penicillin V was obtained.
Maximal penicillin V production was illustrated in lactose and 50 % bagasse combination followed by starch, glucose and sucrose.
Penicillium chrysogenum mycelia grown in a bagasse with complex medium contain lactose as a carbon source and maximum production of penicillin V was obtained on 6th day.
(45) Cefpodoxime administered twice daily for 5 days or cefpodoxime once a day for 10 days produced higher GABHS eradication rates than penicillin V given 3 times per day for 10 days in a multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded study of 377 children aged 2 to 17 years.
In a multicenter, randomized study that involved 484 children aged 2 to 12 years, GABHS eradication rates observed at the end of therapy were highest in children receiving azithromycin administered at 20 mg/kg once daily for 3 days (94.2%), compared with children given penicillin V for 10 days (84.2%) or a lower (10 mg/kg/d) dosage of azithromycin for 3 days (57.8%).
These agents, when administered in short-course therapy, provide superior GABHS eradication rates compared with penicillin V given 3 or 4 times per day for 10 days.
Ten days of penicillin V vs 5 days or 10 days of cefpodoxime therapy in children.
Full browser ?