Penicillins and their derivatives with a penicillanic acid
structure, streptomycins and their derivatives, tetracyclines and their derivatives, chloramphenicol and its derivatives, erythromycin and its derivatives and other antibiotics and salts thereof of all the above.
By other reactions, we refer to the reactions forming other metabolites, as well as the degradation reactions of penicillin to penicillanic acid
. They also include oxidation of the phenylacetic acid precursor to o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (oxidized derivative).
Bacterial pathogens bearing acquired metallo-[beta]-lactamase (MBL) genes exhibit a broad-spectrum resistance to [beta]-lactams that is not reversible by serine-[beta]-lactamase inhibitors (e.g., clavulanate and penicillanic acid
sulphones), sincc MBLs are capable of hydrolyzing most [beta]-lactams and are not susceptible to inhibitors.