pemphigus vulgaris

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Related to pemphigus vulgaris: pemphigus foliaceus


any of a group of diseases characterized by successive crops of large bullae (“water blisters”). Although rare, they are serious and require prompt treatment. The cause is unknown; they seem to occur only in adults and can occur in acute or chronic form. The term is often used alone to refer to pemphigus vulgaris.

Clusters of blisters usually appear first near or inside the nose and mouth and then gradually spread over the skin of the rest of the body. When the blisters burst, they leave round patches of raw and tender skin. The skin itches, burns and gives off an offensive odor. The patient loses appetite and weight. If the disease is allowed to progress, it may cause extreme weakness, prostration and shock, accompanied by chills, sweating, fever, and often pneumonia.

The patient must be hospitalized from the beginning and given antibiotics and sometimes blood transfusions. Intense discomfort is present and the patient may need to suck anesthetic tablets to allay pain around the mouth while eating. Progress has been made in the treatment of this disease through the persistent use of cortisone, administered orally, and of the pituitary extract ACTH, administered intramuscularly. Fatalities, once fairly common, now can usually be averted. The disease is difficult to control, however, and therapy sometimes must be maintained for years to prevent continuing attacks.
benign familial pemphigus a hereditary, recurrent vesiculobullous dermatitis, usually involving the axillae, groin, and neck, with crops of lesions that regress over several weeks or months. Called also Hailey-Hailey disease.
pemphigus erythemato´sus a variant of pemphigus foliaceus in which the lesions, limited to the face and chest, resemble those of disseminated lupus erythematosus.
pemphigus folia´ceus a superficial, relatively mild and chronic form of pemphigus, usually occurring in the fourth and fifth decades of life, and characterized by the development of small flaccid bullae that rupture and crust and localized or generalized exfoliation. The lesions may be found on the scalp, face, and trunk, or they may spread to become generalized.
pemphigus ve´getans a variant of pemphigus vulgaris in which the bullae are replaced by large wartlike vegetative masses.
pemphigus vulga´ris the most common and severe form of pemphigus, usually occurring between the ages of 40 and 60, characterized by the chronic development of flaccid, easily ruptured bullae upon apparently normal skin and mucous membranes, beginning focally but progressing to become generalized, leaving large, weeping, denuded surfaces that become partially crusted over with little or no tendency to heal and that enlarge by confluence. In untreated cases, sepsis, cachexia, and electrolyte imbalance may occur and lead to death.

pem·phi·gus vul·ga·'ris

a serious form of pemphigus, occurring in middle age, in which cutaneous flaccid acantholytic suprabasal bullae and oral mucosal erosions may be localized a few months before becoming generalized; blisters break easily and are slow to heal; results from the action of autoimmune antibodies that localize to intercellular sites of stratified squamous epithelium.

pemphigus vulgaris

Etymology: Gk, pemphix, bubble; L, vulgus, common
a chronic, progressive autoimmune disease that is often fatal, characterized by the formation of bullae on otherwise normal oral mucosal membrane. Also called pemphigus chronicus.
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Pemphigus vulgaris

pemphigus vulgaris

An autoimmune intraepithelial bullous dermatosis, which primarily affects older people and is characterised by suprabasilar acantholysis and blistering of mucocutaneous surfaces, especially of the oral cavity.

Immune response to penicillamine and captopril; > 95% of patients have specific HLA antigens; ±50% of patients begin with oral blisters, followed by skin blistering.

Bullous impetigo, bullous pemphigoid, (bullous) erythema multiforme, dermatitis herpetiformis, Sweet syndrome.

pemphigus vulgaris

Dermatology An autoimmune disorder characterized by acantholysis and blistering of mucocutaneous surface primarily in older people Etiology Immune response to penicillamine and captopril; > 95% of Pts have specific HLA antigens; ±50% of Pts begin with blisters in the mouth, followed by skin

pem·phi·gus vul·ga·ris

(pem'fi-gŭs vŭl-gā'ris)
A serious form of pemphigus, occurring in middle age, in which cutaneous bullae and oral erosions may be localized a few months before becoming generalized; blisters break easily and are slow to heal; results from the action of autoimmune antibodies that localize to intercellular sites of stratified squamous epithelium.


[Gr.] pemphix (blister); a group of immune-mediated diseases of the skin and mucous membranes characterized by vesicles, bullae, erosions and ulcerations; occurs in dogs, cats and horses.

pemphigus erythematosus
a form with features of both pemphigus foliaceus and lupus erythematosus; occurs in dogs and cats. There are erythematous, pustular lesions, mainly on the nose, periorbital skin and pinnae, and hypopigmentation of the planum nasale.
pemphigus foliaceus
a generalized, exfoliative, scaling disease sometimes with the formation of heavy crusts, marked hyperkeratosis of footpads, and involvement of the nail beds that may lead to loss of the nails. Occurs in dogs, cats, horses and goats.
pemphigus vegetans
a benign variant of pemphigus vulgaris, occurring only rarely in animals, in which the bullae are replaced by verrucoid hypertrophic vegetative masses.
pemphigus vulgaris
consists of shallow ulcerations with a generalized distribution and frequently involving the mucocutaneous junctions and oral mucosa.
References in periodicals archive ?
The first category is referred to as pemphigus and entails 4 disease entities: pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus, paraneoplastic pemphigus, and IgA pemphigus.
Ofatumumab is not approved or licensed anywhere in the world for pemphigus vulgaris.
Autoantibodies against a novel epithelial cadherin in pemphigus vulgaris, a disease of cell adhesion.
Available literature suggests that low-level laser therapy can be used efficiently in the treatment of oral pemphigus vulgaris either independently or as an adjunct to the conventional therapy approaches.
Neonatal pemphigus vulgaris associated with mild oral pemphigus vulgaris in the mother during pregnancy.
The diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris is based on 3 independent sets of criteria: clinical features, histology and immunological tests.
In pemphigus vulgaris cases, the immunoreactivity for IgG4 was most condensed to the intercellular junctions of suprabasal keratinocytes, consistent with the known location of desmoglein 3 (Figure 1, A).
Refractory pemphigus vulgaris associated with herpes infection: case report and review.
Successful use of cyclosphosphamide and prednisone for initial treatment of pemphigus vulgaris.
Other illnesses in the pemphigus complex are pemphigus vulgaris, the most severe form, which severely ulcerates the skin around the nose, mouth, anus, or vagina; pemphigus erythematosus, a milder form associated with Collies, Shetland Sheepdogs, and German Shepherds; and pemphigus vegetans, a rare and less-severe form that produces warty growths that may ulcerate.
Serum levels of BAFF are increased in bullous pemphigoid but not in pemphigus vulgaris.