and suicide continue to be prevalent public health issues that affect adolescents across the United States (Espelage & Holt, 2013; Kaminski & Fang, 2009).
Results suggested that peer victimization
impairs children's emotional well-being and children with average or high levels of empathy may be more sensitive to negative experiences.
Nonetheless, peer victimization
has been found to be strongly related to distress (Finkelhor, Shattuck, Turner, & Hamby, 2012), so it seems to be a potentially harmful experience.
Nevertheless, there was a prevalence of peer victimization
among third-grade students and a significant increase in the number of sex crimes reported on college campuses.
Previous research has indicated that both parental and teacher support was associated with decreased peer victimization
(Karlsson, Stickley, Lindblad, Schwab-Stone and Ruchkin, 2014).
Several studies evidenced the relationship between the experience of peer victimization
with depressive symptoms among children (Boivin, Hymel, and Bukowski, 1995; Neary and Joseph, 1994).
, depression, and suicidiality in adolescents.
The second subscale, the University of Illinois Peer Victimization
Scale, assesses verbal and physical peer victimization
within the past 30 days.
A significant finding was that children experienced peer victimization
with decreased frequency when they actively sought out conflict-resolution strategies and attempted to restore relationships.
Objective: This study was conducted to explore the impact of peer victimization
on psychiatric symptoms among adolescents.
Authors collectively cite more than a hundred peer-reviewed papers on bullying and peer victimization
Academic self-efficacy mediated the relationship between parental emotional abuse and NSSI, whereas social self-efficacy mediated the relationship between peer victimization