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The color of urine is due to the presence of the yellow pigment urochrome. Individual ingredients of urine are not usually visible, but when the urine is alkaline some of the ingredients may form sediments of phosphates and urates. The urine may also become cloudy from the presence of mucus. Persistent cloudiness may indicate the presence of pus or blood. Common causes of variations in the color of urine are summarized in the accompanying table.
urine(ur'in) [Fr. urine, fr L. urina, urine]
Urine consists of approx. 95% water and 5% solids. Solids amount to 30 to 70 g/L and include the following (values are in grams per 24 hr unless otherwise noted): Organic substances: urea (10 to 30), uric acid (0.8 to 1.0), creatine (10 to 40 mg/24 hr in men and 10 to 270 mg/24 hr in women), creatinine (15 to 25 mg/kg of body weight per day), ammonia (0.5 to 1.3). Inorganic substances: chlorides (110 to 250 nmol/L depending on chloride intake), calcium (0.1 to 0.2), magnesium (3 to 5 nmol/24 hr), phosphorus (0.4 to 1.3). Osmolarity: 0.1 to 2.5 mOsm/L.
In addition to the foregoing, many other substances may be present depending on the diet and state of health of the individual. Among component substances indicating pathological states are abnormal amounts of albumin, glucose, ketone bodies, blood, pus, casts, and bacteria. See: illustration
block urineFractional urine.
|1000–3000 ml/day||Varies with fluid intake, food consumed, exercise, temperature, kidney function|
|High (polyuria > 3000 ml/day)||Diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, water intoxication, chronic nephritis, diuretic use|
|Low (oliguria)||Dehydration, hemorrhage, diarrhea, vomiting, urinary obstruction, or many intrinsic kidney diseases|
|None (anuria)||Same as oliguria|
|Yellow to amber||Depends on concentration of urochrome pigment|
|Pale||Dilute urine, diuretic effect|
|Milky||Fat globules, pus, crystals|
|Red||Drugs, blood or muscle pigments|
|Green||Bile pigment (jaundiced patient)|
|Brown-black||Toxins, hemorrhage, drugs, metabolites|
|HEMATURIA (blood in urine)|
|0–2 RBC/high-powered field (hpf)||Normal (physiological) filtration|
|3 or more RBCs/hpf||Extrarenal: urinary tract infections, cancers, or stones. Renal: infections, trauma, malignancies, glomerulopathies, polycystic kidneys|
|PYURIA (leukocytes in urine)|
|0–9 leukocytes per hpf|
|10 or more leukocytes/hpf||Urinary tract infection, urethritis, vaginitis, urethral syndrome, pyelonephritis, and others|
|30–300 mg/day of albumin||Indicative of initial glomerular leakage in diabetes mellitus or hypertension (microalbuminuria)|
|> 300 mg/day||Macroalbuminuria. Indicative of progressive kidney failure. Injury to glomeruli or tubulointerstitium of kidney.|
|> 3500 mg/day||Nephrotic range proteinuria. Evaluation may include kidney biopsy.|
|1.010–1.025||Varies with hydration|
|1.010 (Low)||Excessive fluid intake, impaired kidney concentrating ability|
|> 1.025 (High)||Dehydration, hemorrhage, salt-wasting, diabetes mellitus, and others|
|Acid (slight)||Diet of acid-forming foods (meats, eggs, prunes, wheat) overbalances the base-forming foods (vegetables and fruits)|
|High acidity||Acidosis, diabetes mellitus, many pathological disorders (fevers, starvation)|
|Alkaline||Vegetarian diet changes urea into ammonium carbonate; infection or ingestion of alkaline compounds|
|Anuria||Complete (or nearly complete) absence of urination|
|Diversion||Drainage of urine through a surgically constructed passage (e.g., a ureterostomy or ileal conduit)|
|Dysuria||Painful or difficult urination (e.g., in urethritis, urethral stricture, urinary tract infection, prostatic hyperplasia, or bladder atony)|
|Enuresis||Involuntary discharge of urine, esp. by children at night (bedwetting)|
|Incontinence||Loss of control over urination from any cause (e.g., from involuntary relaxation of urinary sphincter muscles or overflow from a full or paralyzed bladder)|
|Nocturia||Excessive urination at night|
|Oliguria||Decreased urinary output (usually less than 500 ml/day), often associated with dehydration, shock, hemorrhage, acute renal failure, or other conditions in which renal perfusion or renal output are impaired|
|Polyuria||Increased urinary output (usually more than 3000 ml/day), such as occurs in diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and diuresis|
urineThe fluid excretion of the kidneys, a solution in water of organic and inorganic substances, most of which are waste products of METABOLISM. Normal urine is clear, of varying colour, of specific gravity between 1.017 and 1.020 and slightly acid. It contains UREA, URIC ACID, creatinine, ammonia, sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, phosphates and sulphates.
urinean aqueous solution of organic and inorganic substances, that is the waste product of METABOLISM. In mammals, elasmobranch fishes, amphibia, tortoises and turtles, nitrogen is excreted in the form of UREA which in humans forms 2% of the urine on average.
Patient discussion about urine
Q. protien in urine what are the causes and preventions
Q. How you stop urinating frequently? I don't have any conditions that make me urinate often. I simply drink lots of water... Is there some trick I can employ so that I can still drink lots of water but not have to go to the bathroom so frequently?
Q. Today doctor removed my stunt of kidney. It inflamate while urination.. till How long i will feel like this?